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The Quito Revolutionary War of 1809

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The Quito Revolutionary war of The theme is the repercussions of this event in ...... More...
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Paper Abstract:
The Quito Revolutionary war of 1809. The theme is the repercussions of this event in Latin America.

Paper Introduction:
Quito Introduction According to an essay published online on the in-quito com website Quito has a unique position in history thanks to itsrelationship with the struggle for liberation in South America from Spanishcolonial rule At the height of the period of Spanish domination QuitoEcuador was the scene of a radical popular uprising provoked by theintroduction of the Sales Tax and Customs duties Eugenio Espejo who wasone of the great intellectual figures of his time lived and worked inQuito The first cry for

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The indigenous population was decimated by disease in the firstdecades of Spanish rule, a time when the natives also were forced into alabor system that benefitted Spanish landlords. The Incan ruler,Atahualpa was ambushed, held for ransom and eventually executed by theSpaniards. In 1828 and 1829,Ecuador was part of an armed struggle between Peru and Gran Colombia overthe specific location of their common border. 2 Jan 2 9 ."Quito." A World of Learning. Southern Methodist University. According to an essay published online on website, by 18 9, Quito was a city of about1 , inhabitants that had been under Spanish rule for about 3 years.Aristocrats living and working in Quito declared the city's independence.This revolt was suppressed by force by the Spanish authorities and as aresult both military leaders and leading intellectuals were killed. According to a lengthy essay written by Kim Clark and Marc Becker, theSpanish colonial administration in Ecuador treated native Indians as wardsof the state and considered them legally inferior to white and mestizoinhabitants. Conclusion: The success of the revolutionaries in Ecuador certainlyhad repercussions for the Spanish colonial powers throughout South America. "Notes on Revolutionary Movements in Latin America." Revolutionary Movements. In spite of widespread opposition by the residents of Quito, thegroup appointed with the approval of the Spaniards to administer Quitocalled a meeting in December of 1811 in which it declared the entire areaof the region of Quito to be independent. 21 Jan 2 9 .Covey, Alan. University of Pittsburgh. Among otherthings, the Constitution provided for the establishment of democraticgoverning institutions, but also granted recognition to the authority ofKing Ferdinand should Ferdinand manage to depose Napoleon's brother andreturn to the Spanish throne. Finally, the powerof the private elite was limited by reforms which were introduced whichreduced their loyalty to Spain. MaquiNet. Sucre became a key figure in the ensuingmilitary struggle against the Spanish loyalist forces. Each regime lasted on average less thantwo years (History of Ecuador). Thus, this first seriousrevolt against colonial rule Ecuador, which incidentally was one of thefirst revolts in any Spanish colony in the Americas, was in reality anexpression of loyalty to the Spanish king. The first cry for independence was heard on August 1 th, 18 9.Nearly everyone involved in this liberation movement were murdered almostexactly a year later by troops loyal to Spain. Another was social decadence. Sadly, almost a decade of turmoil followed the defeat of the Spanishloyalists. A series of conflicts lasting more than ten yearsfollowed. After a number ofinitial successes, Sucre's army was defeated at Ambato. 2 1. Quito was re-founded in December1534, but iindigenous resistance to the Spanish conquest continued. Hemet San Martín in Guayaquil and convinced the Argentinean general to joinforces. In the processof ferreting out participants in the Quito revolt, the Spanish authoritiesjailed and abused many innocent citizens of Quito. In May of 183 , a group of Quito's most prominent citizens met todiscuss how best to dissolve Ecuador's union with Gran Colombia. The actions of theSpanish authorities resulted in widespread resentment among the residentsof Quito. With independence fromSpain, liberal ideals flourished that eliminated with special privilegesand obligations for certain groups of people while at the same timeretaining aspects of Spanish colonial legislation and institutions thatensured the continued subjugation of Indians (Indigenous Peoples and StateFormation in Modern Ecuador). After several days of street fighting, in August of 181 theresidents of Quito won a concession. 2 9. In-Quito. It quickly became apparent that Quito's criollo rebels lacked thepopular support for their cause that could have given this revolution achance for success. In 18 9, the struggle forindependence in Bolivia from Spanish colonial rule once again resulted inuprisings against the royalist forces. Eugenio Espejo, who wasone of the great intellectual figures of his time, lived and worked inQuito. Quito held out for two years but was eventually burned tothe ground by one of Atahualpa's generals rather than allowing the city tobe lost intact to the invading Spaniards. One army was led by theVenezuelan, Simón Bolívar Palacios. The Spanish promptly established the Catholic religion in Quito, withthe first church built even before the city had been officially founded. On July 16, 18 9, Pedro DomingoMurillo said that the Bolivian revolution was igniting a lamp that nobodywould be able to turn-off. Sucre appealed forassistance from San Martín, whose army was in Peru. In the political vacuum thatfollowed, the Republic of Ecuador was formed. OnJanuary of 1535, the San Francisco Convent was constructed, the first ofabout twenty churches and convents built during the colonial period. Independence wasproclaimed by a local patriotic junta under the leadership of the poet JoséJoaquín Olmedo. An agreement was reached that Quitowould be governed by a group dominated by criollos. Thirty years later,Indians laid another siege on La Paz. com/history_of_ecuador.pdf>."La Paz.">."The seeds of liberty of Quito." Another spark was Napoleon'sinvasion of Spain which resulted in Napoleon deposed Spain's King FerdinandVII. A series ofvictories by the revolutionaries culminated in the Battle of Pichincha onthe slopes of the volcano on the western outskirts of Quito. In 1781, a group of localAymara Indians laid siege to La Paz. In 183 , Gran Colombia dissolved. 21 Jan 2 9 . At the height of the period of Spanish domination, QuitoEcuador was the scene of a radical popular uprising provoked by theintroduction of the Sales Tax and Customs duties. Both nations responded by sending sizable armies contingents to Ecuador. Background: According to an essay published on the MaquiNet website,the first Spaniards landed in northern Ecuador in 1526. The Spanish laws, customs andideas were introduced to the local population in cities including Quito.Natives of the region began to mix the old traditions with the new (Historyof Ecuador). Shortly thereafter establishing thisConstitution, the junta launched a military offensive against the Spanish.Quito's poorly trained, poorly led and badly equipped troops were no matchfor those of the Spanish crown's representative in Peru, the Viceroy ofPeru. 22 Jan 2 9 ."History of Ecuador." Ecuador and Galapagos Islands. Criollos were persons of pureSpanish descent born in the Spanish colonies. Two months later, this group ofcriollos approved a Constitution for the State of Quito. The country ofEcuador was nearly dissolved as four governments claimed to rule thenational territory from the highland capital of Quito, from the port ofGuayaquil, and from the two southern cities of Cuenca and Loja. Ecuador became the District of the South within the Confederationof Gran Colombia, which included present-day Venezuela and Colombia withBogotá as its capital. "Indigenous Peoples and State Formation in Modern Ecuador." University of Pittsburgh Press. In 182 , Ecuador again declared its independence from Spain. The victory of the revolutionaries seeking to expel the Spanishmarked the independence of Quito and the surrounding areas from Spain. As loyalist Spanish led troops approached Quito, therevolutionary forces peacefully turned power back to the authoritiesrepresenting the Spanish crown. This marked the beginning of the liberation ofSouth America from Spanish colonial rule. Political, economic and social divisions between European-born andAmerican-born whites led to cleavages within elite society that eventuallyresulted in Ecuador's independence. Many of Spain's colonies didnot want to lose the autonomy that they had enjoyed after Ferdinand wasdeposed by Napoleon following Napoleon's invasion of Spain. Ecuador'sstruggle for independence concluded on May 24, 1822 when troops under thecommand of Simón Bolívar took part in the Battle of Pichincha. Unlike the ill fated and hapless Quito junta, the Guayaquilrevolutionaries appealed to foreign allies in both Argentina and Venezuela. 2 7. OnAugust 1 , 18 9, they seized power from the local representatives of JosephBonaparte in the name of King Ferdinand of Spain. Since constitutionally protected sovereignty was gained in 183 ,Ecuador's history has been marked by fierce rivalry and occasional openwarfare between the church-backed conservatives, based in Quito, and theliberals and socialists of Guayaquil. With the arrival of1,4 fresh soldiers, the fortunes war changed again. This undoubtedly inspired othersto challenge Spain, and these successes ultimately ended Spain's 3 yeardomination of South America as the largest colonial power in South America. However, the Presidentof the Audiencia of Quito would remain in place acting as a representativeof the Spanish crown and as Quito's figurehead leader (Covey). Another army of revolutionaries wasunder the command of José de San Martín and was located to the south inArgentina. The Spanish maintainedstrict control over Ecuador for 25 years. To the extent that any local population was dissatisfied with Spanishcolonial rule and with it colonial exploitation of local people and localnatural resources, the success of the war for independence in Ecuador was aclear example that the Spanish colonial regime could be defeated by adetermined and unified local population. The population of Ecuador was divided between 18 9 and 183 intothree major segments: those favoring the status quo, those supporting aunion with Peru, and those advocating autonomous independence for Ecuador.The latter group prevailed following Venezuela's withdrawal from theconfederation during an 183 Constitutional Congress called in Bogotá in afutile effort to combat growing calls for independence throughout GranColombia. Simmeringfriction between local Ecuadorians and criolles turned to outright war andrebellion. Various factors led to the defeat ofthe colonial system. Quito Introduction: According to an essay published online on the website, Quito has a unique position in history thanks to itsrelationship with the struggle for liberation in South America from Spanishcolonial rule. First, Ecuador found itself on the front lines of Bolívar's war toliberate Peru from Spanish rule between 1822 and 1825. 2 9. General Juan José Floresbecame civilian and military ruler. By this time, the goal of independence from Spain hadspread across much of South America, and armed opposition to Spanishcolonial rule involved two principal armies. The criollos resentment ofthe privileges enjoyed by Spaniards born in Spain became a spark thatignited local dissent that eventually manifested itself in 18 9 in arevolution against Spanish colonial rule. This battletook place just outside the city of Quito and in full view of itsresidents. These were years during which warfare dominated the affairs ofEcuador. 21 Jan 2 9 ."History of Ecuador." Two months later, Simon Bolívar entered Quito to a hero's welcome. This led toan additional three decades of turmoil and uncertainty. Athird was the creation under Spanish rule of a ruling elite class. Works CitedClark, Kim. Ecuaworld com. They destroyed churches and propertybelonging to the Spanish colonial administration. TheSpanish heavily evangelized the indigenous people and also pressed theminto service for the construction of churches, homes and other buildingsused by Spanish administrators. Despite specific assurances that therewould be no reprisals against the leaders of the revolt, the returningSpanish authorities were merciless with the rebel leaders. The Viceroy's troops crushed the Quito rebellion in December of1812. WhenSpanish rule ended, the city of Quito became part of Gran Colombia whichwas ruled by Simón Bolívar. Another factor was a willingnessby Spanish administrators to use force against native Indians. Shortly afterward, Spanish citizens began organizing local juntasloyal to Ferdinand. 2 Jan 2 9
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