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This paper defines multicultural psychology. It also provides a brief history of multicultural psychology, as well as a rationale for the establishment of multicultural psychology as a subspecialty of psychology
MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Definition Mio Barker-Hackett and Tumambing define MulticulturalPsychology as the systematic study of human behavior as it occurs in allsettings and environments where two or more people are of differentcultural ethnic racial and gender backgrounds These settings andenvironments include \'natural\' environments as well as more structured andorganized settings like school and counseling settings The authorsconsider the practice of Multicultural psychology as new force in thefield a force that provides much needed context for already existingknowledge in such areas as behaviorism psychodynamic
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Multicultural psychology supplies this need. (2nd ed.) New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.Nagayama, G. Some specific areas that are important to the field are:differences in the world-views of people of different cultures,acculturation processes, discrimination, racism, cultural identitydevelopment, and so forth. This is the assumption that: ... W. MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Definition Mio, Barker-Hackett, and Tumambing (2 8) define "MulticulturalPsychology" as the systematic study of human behavior as it occurs in allsettings and environments where two or more people are of differentcultural, ethnic, racial and gender backgrounds. First,multicultural psychology informs about multicultural societies in a mannerthat was not heretofore available. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Sue, D. no one theory that explains the realities and experiences of various forms of diversity, and no particular set of competencies that have been proven to be effective with every form of diversity. Second, multicultural psychology is relevant for studying allinternational communication and human interaction. P., & associates. This understanding, Nagayama et al (2 1) point out, was therealization that psychology, as a science, could not really be divorcedfrom the culture within which it developed. This approachand the research findings it yielded influenced Western psychology, forcingit to increasingly take culture into account. S., Barker-Hackett, L., & Tumambing, J. Thus, cross-culturalpsychology grew and developed and became 'multicultural psychology' with asimple but profound understanding. Yet, it is possible to seek and provide information that can move psychologists and other social scientists forward in the search for multicultural awareness, respect, and competence. ERIC Document Reproduction No. The next section of this paperprovides a rationale for why multicultural psychology should be considereda sub-specialty in the field of psychology. (p. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 33(3), 27 -275.Mio, J. These settings andenvironments include 'natural' environments as well as more structured andorganized settings like school and counseling settings. C., & Barongan, C. In conjunction with the foregoing, Nagayama and Barongan (2 1)reportthat non-Western countries, finding Western psychology not whollyapplicable to their way of life and mindset, were beginning to developtheir own cultural research and understanding of the field. Introduction: A report on the National Multicultural Conference and Summit II. In terms of history, what emerges as important is that the last 3 to4 years of cross cultural psychological findings have repeatedly begun todemonstrate the influence of factors like race, culture, gender, sexualorientation, ethnicity, and so forth on human behavior and experience.This, as well as the field's research support for the idea that psychologyitself is culture-bound, have made multicultural psychology a new and vitalforce in the field of psychology and looking like a fresh and much neededsubspecialty within the general discipline. Humanistic psychology is also interested in the roles of power,privilege, and disadvantage on human behavior as well as matters related topsychosocial development, interpersonal relations, academic performance,work productivity, freedom, meaning, and even life and death. This, in turn, shook thefoundational positivistic orientation of the discipline which had held thatscientific understanding must be 'culture free." Not only was it realizedthat this valued goal was not achieved; even more devastating, it was alsorealized that psychology had produced understandings of human behavior thatwere all too often devoid of cultural differences and their impact. Just as multicultural psychology expands the field of psychologygenerally, so too does it inform and expand its already existing sub-specialties. These include humanbehavior as it is influenced by race, age, religion, gender, sexualorientation, ethnicity, sociocultural and sociopolitical factors. (2 2). This fact liftspsychology out of its somewhat individualistic framework and 'weds' it tosociology to some extent. The authorsconsider the practice of Multicultural psychology as new force in thefield, a force that provides much needed context for already existingknowledge in such areas as behaviorism, psychodynamic theory, andhumanistic theory. In this regard, Chaffins and McConell (2 2) applymulticultural psychology to humanistic and existential psychology. (2 1). C. Multicultural psychology. While Haosheng may go too far in his statement, henotes that it is generally recognized that modern multiculturalpsychologists hold that a great deal of psychology is culture bound. History According to Nagayama and Barongan (2 1), multicultural psychologyis associated with its roots which consists of cross-cultural psychology, aschool of psychological thought that developed shortly after WWII inresponse to the new understandings that came with the cross-culturalinteraction that was part of the war effort. This understanding is discussed by Haosheng (2 1) who states thatmulticultural psychology came into being with the understanding thatnatural science with its idea of cultural objectivity was not psychology'sideal model; rather, psychology itself was a product of a country'smainstream culture. To theextent that this is correct, the study of psychology in the United Stateswould be incomplete without a field that specifically addressed allmulticultural issues. The existingliterature in multicultural psychology indicates that each of the interestslisted are areas where diversity has a very real impact. Despite its vitality, some have argued against multiculturalpsychology as a sub-specialty of psychology. Rationale There is a good deal of both research and thought that support thatidea of multicultural psychology as a subspecialty of psychology. ED 47 593.Haosheng, Y. Counseling Psychologist, 33(1), 1 -114. (2 8). J., & McConell, S. 75). Racism and the conspiracy of silence: Presidential address. ReferencesBingham, R. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(2), 75-87.Chaffins, B. (2 2) Multicultural humanistic psychology: Empirical investigations of humanistic concepts. This understanding, in turn, helps to makecounselors more culturally sensitive. E. In thisregard, it is noted that humanistic (sometimes called 'existential)psychology has multiple interests related to the field. This fact is extremely importantgiven that treatment efficacy increases when counselors are more sensitiveto multicultural differences in therapy sessions. For example, according to Sue (2 5),existing research in multicultural psychology well supports that idea thatall Americans are somewhat racist and/or sexist, homophobic, etc. Thus,multicultural psychology provides humanistic counselors with a largerunderstanding of these issues as they relate to both regular life and lifewithin the counseling setting. According to Mio et al (2 8), actual practice in the field ofmulticultural psychology consists of research and study of cross-culturaland sub-cultural behavior as well as applications to the area of counselingand therapy. The field produced severaldecades of research and with the development of its understanding ofdiversity in all of its forms came a new and innovative understanding ofscience in general and psychology in particular. (2 5). In other words,the most pressing matters related to the humanistic field of psychology areexpanded in scope by the addition of the multicultural understanding. (2 1). In other words, multicultural psychology expandsthe field of psychology itself, not only giving it more quality but alsomaking it more relevance to the broad domain of human behavior. An analysis of the cultural turn of western psychology. Multicultural psychology. Regarding multicultural psychology as a field, Bingham and associates(2 2) state that there is a central assumption underlying this school ofpsychological thought.
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