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Technology to support ESL learning

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TEchnology to support ESL learning Esl learning best practices technology to teach ESL students ...... More...
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Paper Abstract:
Examines the technology to support ESL learning. Discusses Esl learning, best practices, technology to teach ESL students, barriers to technology use, and technology methods. The increase in enrollment of students who need to learn English as a second language.

Paper Introduction:
Using Technology to Support ESL Learning Introduction The following presents the topic of using technology to support ESLlearning The following issues are discussed English as a secondlanguage best-practices for ESL students technology to increase ESLlearning barriers to technology use to enhance ESL learning technologymethods to support ESL learning and summary and conclusion English as a Second Language The enrollment of students who seek to learn English as a secondlanguage continues to increase presenting challenges for educatorsnationwide Nelson According to North Central Regional

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The No Child Left Behind Act(NCLB) of 2 1 demands that these goals be met and also states that by theeighth grade, all students must be technologically literate. Available: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te9 .htmParra, Gabriel Eduardo Cote. Williams stated thateducators must encourage students to substitute words from their ownlanguage when the English word is unknown in a classroom that is free fromrisk to do so. || |Students will use appropriate learning || |strategies to construct and apply || |academic knowledge. Technology to Increase ESL Learning New NCLB requirements bring new goals and increased accountabilityfor all students as well as ESL students. If a student is having a problem with the assignment, they can useanother's paper as a guide. While the study of foreign languages is not centered onESL students, related findings further point out the discrepancies found inschools with high numbers of minority students with regard to the use oftechnology to learn a language. Technology provides new opportunities to teachersand students for all learning. The online discussion group provides a technologicalaid to learn a foreign language. The authors concluded that students using aWeb-based method learned slightly more than students in the classroom.This technology allows students to learn English in a faster and moreinteractive manner. The learning of English as aninternational language is a growing concept as global commerce andcommunications increase. Schools with lower income students, asmeasured by the percent of students qualifying for subsidized lunches,demonstrate lower percentages of classroom Internet access. "Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL fluency," The Clearing House 74.2 (2 ): 1 2-1 4.Brock, Cynthia. Collaborativeactivities were needed to help students use English and learn socialstudies, and technology assisted with these goals. Technology use included the use of a software package, Edmark'sDestination: Time Trip, USA. "Whose history? Lessons must useinstructional conversations formats with dialogue to increase interest andlearning. Summary and Conclusion In summary, the numbers of ESL students are increasing, bestpractices to assist these students are provided, and technology can be usedto assist with these goals. The authors sought to understand if there were increases instudent use of language for social purposes and increases in appropriateuse of language for different cultural and social settings improved.Findings were that students participated with higher rates in collaborativeactivities, compared to individual activities and their use of writtenlanguage for enjoyment and personal expression increased. Parra (2 ) provided an example of an online discussion group andits process. This author showed findings to different people proficient in thelanguages, who reported the translations to be good and accurate. Thisnumeric index targets schools that need improvement. Findings were that online students scoredlower than classroom students on a pretest, and post-tests showed nosignificant differences. Chat rooms, e-mail, discussionforums, content modules, quizzes, resource links, presentation and groupingdevices, and opportunities for the development of a personal home page wereprovided. This site is interactive and accessible to users worldwide.English for Everybody has a set of English language lessons for differentlevels with practice exam and resources. Increases insocial and culturally appropriate use of languages were not found howeverstudents corrected their use of language due to peer messages while gainingexperience with online communication. "Comparing Web-based and classroom-based learning: A quantitative study," Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34.2 (2 2): 131-137.Thomsen, Elizabeth B. Another site is TEFL.net, which also includes job listings, teachingmaterial, articles, and more. Graphics with text, dialoguejournals, or multimedia learning portfolios can be used to assess students. According to these authors,California has implemented an accountability program to measure academicperformance of the students and identify schools that are behind due tolarge numbers of minority or economically disadvantages students and largenumbers of students seeking to learn English as a second language. Whatever the context of teaching English,resources on the World Wide Web assist with learning a second language.For example, Dave's ESL Cage is a site that includes job postings worldwideand teaching ideas with material. "English Learners and Machine Translation," Phi Delta Kappan 85.5 (2 4): 4 9-41 .Williams, Joan A. Best-Practices for ESL Students ESL students learn English as they learn academic subjects (Urdanivia-English 193). English as a Second Language The enrollment of students who seek to learn English as a secondlanguage continues to increase presenting challenges for educatorsnationwide (Nelson 39). For example, best practices point out thatstudent collaboration and interaction are important for learning Englishand the use of technology allows for the increase of these goals. Technology is a tool that enhances learningof a content area with new ways of instructing students. Education has shifted to a focus ofteaching ESL students from diverse backgrounds and this requires newmethods that enhance the learning experience for all. || |Students will use appropriate learning || |strategies to extend their || |sociolinguistic and sociocultural || |competence. | || |Students will use appropriate language || |variety, register, and genre according to|| |audience, purpose, and setting. Technology allows the teacher to provide the studentwith immediate feedback and rewards for language and content learning.This informal assessment is productive since it eliminates anxiety relatedto standardized test taking or essay writing. Students used technology to post their stories and finish theminto a book. Thus, in schools withhigh numbers of ESL students, computers are control mechanisms or serve asworkbooks rather than to enhance ESL learning (NCREL 13-14). Inaddition, best practices include the building and use of vocabulary for acurricular anchor, which is assisted by computer programs. Englishclub.com is a site for students ofany age, which provides grammar help, quizzes, games, forums, andvocabulary. Excerpts from the informationfound can be translated into many languages such as Spanish, Japanese, andGreek. Zha, Kelly, Park, and Fitzgerald (2 6) also reported on the use ofan electronic discussion board to assist elementary-aged ESL learning.Student communicative competence was measured by analyzing 956 messagesposed by 28 ESL students to an electronic discussion board in a six-weekperiod. The use ofvisuals to reinforce vocabulary and concepts is noted as important andagain technology allows for this method. Studentinteractions with peers and teachers help them to practice the languagelearned and reflect about new information. In addition to these insights, Brock (2 1) reported that highexpectations must be maintained when helping the ESL student while valuinglinguistic and cultural backgrounds of diverse students. According to Williams (2 1), teachers must combine theoryand practice as they help ESL students, teaching within a broad cultural,social, and historical context. Padilla, and Duarte M. Thirunarayanan and Perez-Prado (2 2) compared Web-based andclassroom-based learning in students that were enrolled in a course thattaught English to speakers of other languages. Thomsen (2 3) reported on the use of an Internet column to assistESL/EFL students. Collections of links are also provided.This site is maintained by an experienced teacher and presenter atconferences and it is popular with ESL/EFL students and teachers. Findings showed that best practices for ESL students are: buildand use vocabulary for a curricular anchor; use visuals to reinforcevocabulary and concepts; implement cooperative learning and peer-tutoring;use native language strategically; and modulate cognitive and languagedemands. ||To use English in | ||socially and culturally | ||appropriate ways. "Access and Engagement: Program Design and Instructional Approaches for Immigrant Students in Secondary School," Multicultural Education 9.1 (2 1): 39.North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) "Critical Issue: Using Technology to Support Limited- English-Proficient (LEP) Students' Learning Experiences." Internet. Technology assists with these goals since it helps engage students ina learning environment. Not only do minority children lack access tocomputers but they also lack the experience needed to utilize computertechnology or access the Internet. Computers can be used in agroup or individuals to facilitate learning. These technological resources assist ESL and EFLstudents with learning the language and using it to deal with real lifesituations such as hotel reservations, taxi rides, housing complaints, andimmigration (Thomsen 92). "An Investigation of Communicative Competence of ESL Students Using Electronic Discussion Boards," Journal of Research on Technology in Education 38.3 (2 6): 349-367. Other sitesinclude Daily Grammar, Free English, the BBC World Service, and Randall'sESL Cyber Listening Lab. | || |Students will use English to interact in || |the classroom. However, since the online group improved by 15.21points from pre to posttest and the classroom students improved by 13.19points, the online group showed greater achievement levels. A message board allows studentsto post and receive answers to questions within 24 hours. Benefits of this method include: easy makeup for students whomissed a class; practice of writing skills; sharing of experiences andleaning; learning English outside the classroom with Internet access;stimulates class time; and e-mail encourages lower level students toincrease writing skills and develops cooperative skills. This technology-based story-telling activity allowed forinteraction while learning English and social studies. Interviews with educators and researchers nationwide wereconducted. || |Students will use learning strategies to || |extend their communicative competence. When learning a topic related to learning English, the taskis agreed on and developed in class and students are to do their homeworkand them post it online, comment on other student work, and back and forth. Technology Methods to Support ESL Learning Parra (2 ) reported on the use of online discussion groups to learnEnglish, noting the advantages and disadvantages. Silva. According to Parra, onlinediscussion groups offer a powerful and versatile tool to learn a languagesince they include experiences that take place outside the classroom.Students are able to engage in learning processes that are interactive andmeaningful. Thismethod provides a valuable tool to help communicate with parents andstudents and help them learn English in the process. Carol and Perry Kay Haley. "Internet column: Teaching English: ESL/EFL resources," Collection Building 22.2 (2 3): 92-93.Urdanivia-English, Carmen. "Kidspiration® for Inquiry-Centered Activities," Science Activities 41.1 (2 4): 3-8.Sung, Hyekyung, Amado M. The authorconcluded that the use of technological tools to support ESL and content,fosters verbal interaction, oral negotiation and construction of knowledge(Egbert and Simich-Dudgeon 24). High-tech demands fromcommerce and industry demand that all graduates, including ESL students,must learn technology skills to compete for jobs (Beckett and Haley 1 2). In this way technology or theuse of computers helps students increase their confidence as they increasetheir learning of English and other subjects (NCREL 11-13). Teachers mustunderstand the acquisition process involved in learning English, whichtakes from five to seven years for most students to become proficient inthe second language. Sung, Padilla, and Silva (2 6) reported features of the foreignlanguage programs found at California schools. Thissoftware allows students to easily visit their web, edit, test ideas,create pictorial representations, and more. "Providing support for non-Native learners of English in the social studies classroom: Integrating verbal interactive activities and technology," The Social Studies 92.1 (2 1): 22-25.Gersten, Russell, and Scott Baker. Students are able to search the Internet for news, musicinformation, airline schedules and more. ReferencesBeckett, E. Communication between teachers and students or parents who areseeking to learn English is assisted with machine translation technology.While use of this technology is less popular, Van Horn (2 4) reportedpersonal experience of the capabilities of Apple's Sherlock. Technology allowsfor appropriate assessment of student ability during class activities withmultiple methods. "Foreign Language Education, Academic Performance, and Socioeconomic Status: A Study of California Schools," Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2 6): 115-13 .Thirunarayanan, M. This browserless package searches the Internet and Sherlock allows students to readinformation in their native language while viewing the equivalent inEnglish. Verbal interaction was viewed as a criticalcomponent in teaching and learning any language and in particular a secondlanguage; all students need opportunities to interact. "Serving English language learners: Placing learners learning on center stage," Language Arts 78.5 (2 1): 467-475.Egbert, Joy, and Carmen Simich-Dudgeon. Theteacher has used the discussion group for two years and finds that itmotivates students and they have fun as they learn English and othercontent. Social studies in an elementary English class for speakers of other languages," The Social Studies 92.5 (2 1): 193-197.Van Horn, Royal. Disadvantages ofthis method are that there can be problems with implementation for languagelearning, students make mistakes in their language learning, computerilliteracy and lack of access prohibits some students from use, and schoolaccess to computers is limited. Barriers to Technology Use to Enhance ESL Learning Barriers to the use of technology to support ESL learning include thegap in access to technology regarding disadvantaged students. Instructors were able to manage student information, trackstudents, and communicate with the student through e-mail. Student's access messages that they want toread and they make comments, and students work at their own pace. These factors were notfound in low socioeconomic schools or schools with larger numbers ofstudents seeking to learn English. The ESL student must increase their proficiencyin their own as well as another language and foreign language learningassists all students with critical thinking and cognitive development.Technology assists with the learning of any language and this is notrecognized in low performing schools with minority and low SES students. Using Technology to Support ESL Learning Introduction The following presents the topic of using technology to support ESLlearning. O., and Aixa Perez-Prado. (2 6) studied 22 public high schools in California.Questionnaires were used to school officials to seek information regardingtotal student enrollment in foreign language classes, numbers of foreignlanguage classes, foreign exchange programs and study abroad, technologyfacilities and usage in teaching, and more. Gersten, Russell, and Scott Baker (2 ) investigated methods ofeffective instruction for ESL students in elementary and middle schoolgrades. This study determined thatschools with high API rankings had larger numbers of students enrolled inforeign language classes, more foreign language teachers and programs, andused technology more to teach foreign language. The course was divided intotwo sections, one that taught in the classroom (n = 31 students) and theother online (n = 29 students). Thesegoals are consistent with the goals for all students and therefore alignwith general instruction. The gapbetween Latino and white non-Latino home access to technology to includecomputers and the Internet, has been noted and referred to the digitaldivide; in 2 1 it was found that 32% of Latinos own computers compared to55% of white non-Latinos. Technology supportedverbal interaction among English language and ESL students in the socialstudies classroom. A teacher of ESLstudents, who received ESL instruction separate from the general classroom,faced the task of learning social studies as well. Technology-enhanced activities that allowed for verbalinteraction were used. Shaw, Baggett, and Salyer (2 4) reportedfurther that the use of Kidspiration, a software program assists studentsin creative thinking and provides visual learning for ESL students. Learning takes place at any time and place as students e-maileach other, write comments, and read comments of papers from otherstudents. While this method allowsthe student to practice their writing skills, the use of computers and newtechnology may be a problem for other students. The authors pointed out that a focus onforeign language study is important for all students, to include studentslearning to speak English. Costs ofincreasing classroom computer and Internet use are high prohibiting thechanges in existing buildings required to support this new technology.Studies also show that schools with minority students tend to use whattechnology they have for test-taking skills, drill, and practice ratherthan creating multimedia presentations or Web sites. Frameworks to increase success for the student attempting tolearn English as a second language include the following: high expectationsof learning; development of receptive and productive proficiencies inEnglish with listening, reading, writing, and speaking goals; challengingcontent is taught to meet standards for content areas; instruction buildson earlier education and cognitive abilities related to languageproficiency levels; students are evaluated with valid and appropriateassessments aligned with standards; and educators, family, and thecommunity share in helping these students succeed academically. The following issues are discussed: English as a secondlanguage; best-practices for ESL students; technology to increase ESLlearning; barriers to technology use to enhance ESL learning; technologymethods to support ESL learning; and summary and conclusion. Sung et al. ||To use English to | ||achieve academically in | ||all content areas. "Learning English through online discussion groups," Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 44.1 (2 ): 36-38.Shaw, Edward L., Paige V Baggett, and Barbara Salyer. This author supported the notion that worldwide, numbersof people learning English are increasing. According to North Central Regional EducationalLaboratory [NCREL] (2 3), due to this increase of primarily Latinostudents, goals have been set to ensure that these students have adequateeducation and meet accountability standards. The classroom instructions must include worksheets andinteractions that do not ignore the ESL student. | NCREL (2 3) reported that native language support is not a focus ofthe ESL Standards however many programs include ESL and bilingualinstruction. The ESL Standards and Assessment Project, developed in 1995, includedthe development of ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students, which was publishedin 1997 by the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL).These standards have three prominent goals: to use English to communicatein social settings; to use English to achieve academically in all contentareas; and to use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways.Within these goals there are content standards as follows in Table 1 (NCREL3-4):Table 1.ESL Standards for Pre-K-12 Students|Goals |Standards ||To use English to | ||communicate in social | ||settings. This includedstudents of all backgrounds or cultures (NCREL 1). The CaliforniaForeign Language Project is a professional development project that wasimplemented statewide for foreign language educators, however foreignlanguage study and learning are not part of the California accountabilitysystem and not all schools include foreign language classes for ESL andother students. Egbert and Simich-Dudgeon (2 1) reported on the use of technologyfor integration of verbal interactive activities to support ESL learning.These authors pointed out that when teaching social studies to junior highschool ESL students, it is important to engage these students ininteractive activities. According to NCREL (2 3), newgoals demand reforms and preparation of students for successful performanceon standardized tests that measure yearly progress. | || |Students will use English to participate || |in social interactions. A case example was provided. This software allowed students to choosecharacterless, settings, and text to tell a story with graphics, text,voice recording, international language capabilities, and other multimediafeatures. The samecontent was taught to all students, but delivery was based on classroom oronline instruction methods. || |Students will use English to obtain, || |process, construct, and provide subject || |matter information in spoken and written || |form. "What we know about effective instructional practices for English-language learners," Exceptional Children 66.4 (2 ): 454-47 .Nelson, Kathryn. Interactive technology withcomputers and the Internet allows students to learn while they modulatelanguage demands. Vocabulary learning, basic literacy skills, and phonetic awarenessare programs that allow students to learn English and assess proficiency.Computers can be used to generate electronic grade books, charts, andgraphs to note areas that need improvement. The onlinesection of the course included the use of a software tool WebCT, whichallows the instructor to design a presentation of the course with colorschemes, page layouts, and icon selection. 14 June 2 6. Technology allows students who seek to learn English to have access toinformation and learning tools that do not embarrass them for notunderstanding the English language, while increasing their English languageskills. ThePublic School Accountability Act of 1999 requires that the Department ofEducation in California calculate an Academic Performance Index (API) forall public schools each year and publish school rankings accordingly. "Classroom conversations: Opportunities to learn for ESL students in mainstream classrooms," The Reading Teacher 54.8 (2 1): 72 -757.Zha, Shenghua, Paul Kelly, MeeAeng Ko Park, and Gail Fitzgerald. || |Students will interact in, through, and || |with spoken and written English for || |personal expression and enjoyment. Not allstudents have access to technology and this disadvantage is more prominentin minority students who need it the most to support ESL learning. Boredom is decreased while motivation increased outside andinside the classroom. || |Students will use nonverbal communication|| |appropriate to audience, purpose, and || |setting.

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