Comparison of the Roman Catholic Mass and Anglican Order of the Eucharist
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Compares and contrasts the Roman Catholic Mass and the Anglican Church's Order of the Eucharist, noting similarities and differences between these two Christian rituals. References to the meaning of the Eucharist, transubstantiation and the effects of Vatican II are included.
The Roman Catholic Mass and Anglican Order of the EucharistIntroduction The Protestant Reformation created the Lutheran Anabaptist Reformed and Anglican aspects of the Christian faith According to EarleE Cairns the Anglican Reformation in England began without adominant ecclesiastical leader such as Martin Luther or John Calvin and wasdominated by the British monarch initially Henry VIII who became thehead of the national church For that reason the Anglican Church beganas a lay political movement continued as a religious movement andconcluded with the Elizabethan
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It is therefore inclusive ofCatholics, Orthodox, Anglicans, Protestants, and Oriental Christians alikeand is no longer identified solely with the Roman Catholic Church (McBrien,684). Cairns (399) has noted that in the mid-nineteenthcentury, the so-called Oxford Movement within the Anglican Churchemphasized the real physical presence of Christ's body and blood in theCommunion and claimed that the Communion was valid only when it wasadministered by ordained ministers in the apostolic succession. The Roman Catholic Mass and Anglican Order of the EucharistIntroduction The Protestant Reformation created the Lutheran, Anabaptist,Reformed, and Anglican aspects of the Christian faith. Both of these liturgies include the recitation of the Lord's Prayer- the Our Father or, in Latin, the Paternoster (Powers, 3). For example, in the Romanrite of the Catholic Church (which contains many other rites, includingthat of the Greek or Byzantine Catholics, the Melkites, and theUkrainians), the Second Vatican Council opened by Pope John XXII permittedthe various dioceses of the world to adopt the "vernacular," substitutingthe local language for the traditional Latin liturgical prayers of theTridentine mass (Mitchell, 1). Interestingly, both haveadopted the greeting of peace in which members of both congregationsphysically offer a handshake or other sign of friendship to fellowcelebrants. In Roman Catholic liturgical terminology, there is sometimes areference to two Masses, referring to the division of the Eucharisticservice that is clearly identified in 3rd and 4th century texts by ChurchFathers. Included in the "Holy Eucharist" section of the prayer book is the receiving of communion, which is the Eucharist itself (Anglican.org, 3)." Presented below is a detailed description of the Anglican Order ofthe Eucharist; this figure clearly indicates similarities with the RomanCatholic Mass. It is thepurpose of this research report to compare and contrast the Roman Catholicmass and the Anglican Church Order of the Eucharist. For that reason, the Anglican Church "beganas a lay political movement, continued as a religious movement, andconcluded with the Elizabethan settlement in the middle of the sixteenthcentury (Cairns, 327)." Anglicanism as it developed drew heavily upon the fundamental tenetsof dogma and doctrine of Roman Catholicism while nevertheless abjuring anyloyalty to the papacy and distancing itself in some key ideological andtheological ways from Rome (McBrien, 635). There is, in the Anglican Order of the Eucharist, aprogression to the supreme moment at which the Communion - presented inboth forms as bread and wine - are made available to the members of thecongregation. "The Order of the Mass." 2 5. While the use of the term "Mass" does not necessarily indicate any p ass), in common usage it is connected with the Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic doctrine of the Mass in which the priest is considered to participate in the sacrifice of the body and blood of Christ, the transubstantiated host and wine. Transubstantiation, as definedby McBrien (826) refers to the process by means of which the substances ofbread and wine are changed into the body and blood of Christ. /vocab/abcde.html.Anonymous. Until fairlyrecently, the Roman Catholic Church (before Vatican II) also required thatmembers of the faithful make at least one formal private confession in thesacrament of penance to a priest. This chant is known as the Gradual, so called because it was chanted from the steps (gradus) of the pulpit where the Gospel was read or sung. Doctrinal andliturgical formularies in Anglicanism have, as they have in RomanCatholicism, changed somewhat over time. "Anglicanism." 2 5. The most common meaning is the name of the Christiansacramental meal that is equivalent to the Lord's Supper or the Eucharist.The second meaning is as part of the phrase "Anglican Communion," whichrefers to the unity among the different Anglican churches (Anglican.org,3). Anglicanshold the Scriptures to be the sole and supreme rule of faith and to containall things necessary to salvation. Otherdifferences include the option offered in the Anglican Church of usingeither the Apostles Creed or the Nicene Creed. . Mass in the Roman Catholic Church always includesthe Eucharist and always builds to this central profession of faith andunion of the faithful with the real presence of Jesus Christ. ""Mass: Advanced Information." 2 5. It opens with the Lord's Prayer (Paternoster, "Our Father"), continues with the prayer for peace and the greeting of peace, and concludes with the communion of the clergy and the faithful, which may be accompanied by the communion hymn. In Greek and other Catholic rites, certain pre-sanctified rituals or masses are offered in which the bread and wine havepreviously been transubstantiated into the body and blood of Jesus Christ.In the Anglican Church, this occurs only during those services specificallyidentified as the Order of the Eucharist (Swayze, 1). For Roman Catholics, withsome limited exceptions in Greek Catholic rites, transubstantiation alwaysoccurs in the Mass. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981.Catholic-Resources.org. It should also be noted that the vast majority of Anglican churches(also known as Episcopal churches in the United States) offer as analternative to the Anglican Order of the Eucharist the ceremony that isknown as Morning Prayer. Davids (1) describes the Roman Catholic Mass as the centralreligious service of the Church and as inclusive most specifically of thecelebration of the sacrament of the Eucharist, the rite instituted by JesusChrist at the Last Supper. This then movestoward the liturgy of the Eucharist which culminates with the offering ofCommunion and which is followed by a series of concluding prayers and arecession of the celebrants and the faithful from the church. This difference aside and as this report has demonstrated, there aremore similarities than differences in the two rituals. Lay Anglicans have long had a more active roleof this type than their Catholic brethren. A recessional hymn may be sung as clergy and laity leave the church." Powers (3) noted as well that the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II)introduced not only the vernacular option, but also permitted Communion(the Eucharistic Supper) under both kinds (bread and wine) andconcelebration in which more than one priest and/or bishop or rankingmember of the clergy share the responsibility of celebrating the Mass. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Mass is generally offered atleast on a daily basis and in some large parishes, on more than oneoccasion during the day. Both rituals call for a sermon or a homilyto be offered by the celebrant of the ritual which generally draws to somedegree or another on the ideas expressed in either the Epistle or Gospel ofthe day. Available at http://catholic-resources.org/ ChurchDocs/Mass.htm.Davids, P. This is notnecessarily the case in the Anglican Church which distinguishes between itsMorning Prayer and its Order of the Eucharist. Available at www./vocab/abcde.html.Swayze, Ed. "Mass: General Information." 2 5. Available at www./vocab/abcde.html. L. McBrien, Richard P. They consist of selections from the Old Testament, or from letters of the New Testament (Epistle), which are followed by a chant for the Gospel procession. Available at www.gshep.org/information /vocabulary.htmAnonymous, "Order of the Roman Catholic Mass," 2 5. Anglicans have not required this andhave long substituted a public confession of sins for the more formalCatholic rite. Available at http://florian.hegewisch.net/school/ordermass.html).Cairns, Earle E. In the Anglican Church, the word "Communion" has two different butrelated meanings. Powers (2) identified further the specific features of the RomanCatholic mass: . Available at http://mb-soft.com/believe/txo/mass.htm.New Advent.org. Christianity through the Centuries. Nevertheless, unlike Anglicanism, theRoman Catholic Church presents itself "first and foremost, as a mystery orsacrament" inclusive of the whole People of God realized and expressed atthe local as well as the universal level. The Readings constitute the second part of the Mass. They accept the Book of Common Prayeras the practical rule of their beliefs and worship and in it they use asstandards of doctrines the Nicene and Athanasian Creeds. H. Works CitedAnglican.org. According to Mitchell (1): "The two chief parts of the Mass are the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist. Available at www.gshep.org/information/vocabulary.htm). Withthe reforms instituted by Vatican II and particularly with the admission ofthe vernacular, Roman Catholic masses provide congregations with enhancedopportunities to participate in singing in their own languages. Specifically, "Anglicans often use the word Eucharist instead of the words Mass or Communion. Catholicism. The first consists primarily of two or three Scripture readings, a homily following the Gospel reading, and general intercessions or prayers of the faithful. According to Davids (1): "The first segment is the service of the word, after which catechumens were dismissed, and therefore termed the Mass of the catechumens; the second is the service of the table (the passing of the peace, the Lord's Prayer, and the Eucharist itself), which was reserved for baptized Christians in good standing and called the Mass of the faithful. Anglicanscontinue to emphasize both the real presence of Christ in the elements ofthe sacrament and baptismal regeneration, coming "very close to the RomanCatholic exultation of the sacraments as important factors in justification(Cairns, 399)." There is some difference to be observed in the specific ordering ofprayers when the two liturgies are compared. The prayer book says "The Holy Eucharist is the sacrament commanded by Christ for the continual remembrance of his life, death, and resurrection, until his coming again.... The final section of the Mass, the Concluding Rite, consists of a final prayer (postcommunion), the blessing (benediction), and the dismissal (Ite, missa est). In otherwords, what occurs at this moment is that working through the presence ofthe priest or bishop, ordinary substances take on the essence and substanceof Jesus Christ and represent the real presence of Jesus Christ in theseforms. In the Roman Catholic Mass,it is the Nicene Creed that is mandated, though as McBrien (64 ) pointsout, different Catholic rituals or rites permit some variation in the exactphrasing of this profession of faith. This section begins with the Preface, an introductory prayer that concludes with the Sanctus. Typically, in the Anglican Order of the Eucharist, this liturgy isoffered only on Sunday and on certain feast days or holy days of theChurch. The Foremass ends with the opening prayer, or first oration. Available athttp://florian.hegewisch.net/school/ordermass.html). Available at www.newadvent.org/caten/ 1498a.htm.Powers, Joseph M. "Church Words ABCDE." 2 5. The main actions of the second part are the preparation of the altar and gifts, Eucharistic prayer, breaking of bread, and communion. Swazye (3) also points out that both of these rituals offer anopportunity for a form of public confession of one's sins. Nevertheless, as Swayze (1)has stated, in both faiths the worship service is a blend of the ancientand the modern and provides a public setting in which people are able toconnect with God and in which they receive most of their Christianteaching.Summary and Conclusion There are many very clear synergies to be observed when the RomanCatholic Mass and the Anglican Order of the Eucharistic are compared andcontrasted. "Episcopal Vocabulary: Anglican Order of the Eucharist," 2 5. In this liturgical use "Mass" indicates which group left the church at the dismissal at the end of that part of the service. When the communicants receive the bread and/or wine, they are ineffect taking into their own physical being the essence or substance ofJesus Christ and joining with Christ in a union of grace (McBrien, 828). It is interesting torecognize that despite their differences, both Anglicans and RomanCatholics are in agreement with respect to the central significance of theEucharist - also known as the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion - in theexpression of one's faith (Cairns, 353).Comparison of the Two Rituals P.H. Available at www.thunderbayanglicans.com/new_anglican.htm. In the Anglican Church, two sacraments of the Gospel are accepted -baptism and the Lord's Supper or the Eucharist (New Advent, 1). As McBrien (657) has stated,the purpose of Vatican II was to keep in mind "the basic distinctionbetween the substance of doctrine and the way in which it is presented."Vatican II also signaled "the Catholic Church's movement from a church ofcultural confinement, particularly of the European variety, to a genuineworld church (McBrien, 657)." A more progressive theology emerged from Vatican II which greatlysimplified the Roman Catholic Mass and brought into closer conformity withthe Anglican Order of the Eucharist. Figure 2 Anglican Order of the Eucharist|[|The Word of God ||p|[pic] ||i|Procession ||c| ||]|[pic] || |Decalogue (Rite I) || | || |[pic] || |Kyrie || | || |[pic] || |Gloria || | || |[pic] || |Collect || | || |[pic] || |Lessons || |[pic] || |Epistles || | || |[pic] || |Gradual Psalm || | || |[pic] || |Gospel || | || | || | || |[pic] || |Sermon || | || |[pic] || |Nicene Creed || | || |[pic] || |Prayers of the People || | || |[pic] || |Confession of Sin || | || |[pic] || |The Peace || | ||[|The Holy Communion ||p|[pic] ||i|Offertory ||c| ||]|[pic] || |Great Thanksgiving || |[pic] || |Eucharistic Prayer || |[pic] || |Salutation || | || |[pic] || |Preface || | || |[pic] || |Sanctus || | || |[pic] || |Words of Institution || | || |[pic] || |Doxology || | || |[pic] || |Great Amen || | || | || | || |[pic] || |The Lord's Prayer || | || | || | || |[pic] || |Breaking of the Bread (Fraction) || | || |[pic] || |Invitation to Communion || | || |[pic] || |Communion || | || |[pic] || |Post-Communion || | || |[pic] || |Benediction || | || |[pic] || |Dismissal || | |(Anonymous. Usually this is not thought of as a resacrifice of Christ, although in some old Catholic theologies that was surely the case, but as a participation in and a making present of the eternal and thus timeless sacrifice of Christ in which the priest represents Christ in terms drawn from Hebrews. Many of the new similarities that can be identified between the tworituals are the direct result of structural changes to the Roman CatholicMass that were undertaken after Vatican II. Since Vatican II, lay Catholics have taken a more activerole in the Mass, presenting readings and the Epistles and actuallydistributing the Eucharist. Both have as their most significant feature the partaking ofthe bread and wine which represents in the Anglican Church the sacrifice ofJesus Christ for man's sins and a reenactment of events said to have takenplace when Jesus met with his Apostles at the Last Supper. . The final reading is drawn from one of the four Gospels and is followed by the sermon (homily). This is a fairly recent development in the Roman Catholic Masswhich dates to the era following the Second Vatican Council. Then follows the central Eucharistic prayer, or Canon, which contains the narrative of Jesus' institution of the Eucharist. McBrien (636) put it, "Anglicanism is the result of afusion of nationalism and religious upheaval" in which the English state"acquired the Church" and under which the reigning monarch of Great Britainis at the same time the titular head of the Church of England. "Anglican Worship." 2 3. Anglicans, like Roman Catholics, initially acceptedtransubstantiation. Figure 1 Roman Catholic Order of the Mass|Order of the Mass ||Gathering Rite ||Opening Song & Procession ||Greeting ||Penitential Rite ||Gloria ||Opening Prayer || ||Liturgy of the Word ||Hebrew Testament ||Psalm Response ||Christian Testament ||Gospel Acclamation ||Gospel ||Homily ||Profession of Faith (Creed) || ||Preparation of Gifts ||Offertory Collection ||Offertory Song || Offertory Procession ||Liturgy of the Eucharist ||Preface ||Sanctus ||Eucharistic Prayer ||Eucharistic Acclamation ||Our Father ||Greeting of Peace ||Communion || Communion Song || ||Recessional Rite ||Closing Prayer ||Final Blessing ||Recessional Song & Procession |(Anonymous, "Order of the Roman Catholic Mass," 2 5. . Another major similarity between the two rituals is the increasedemphasis in Roman Catholicism on communal singing (McBrien, 1 64). During the third part of the Mass - the Offertory - offerings of bread, wine, and other gifts are brought to the altar with processional chants and are dedicated to the service of God with Offertory prayers. As Swayze (1)points out, "Jesus gave the meal a new meaning when he likened the bread tohis body and the wine to his blood and the salvation of people through hisdeath." For Roman and other Catholics, it is important to recognize thatwhen one receives bread and wine that has been transubstantiated, one isnot receiving substances "likened" to the body and blood of Christ; rather,one is directly partaking of the actual body and blood of Christ andthereby achieving union with the sacrificed Christ. While this eschatological aspect has never been accepted by Protestants, it allows Catholics to preserve the unity of Christ's work and the sacrificial character of the service." The order of the Roman Catholic Mass is based on the Missale Romanum,the Roman Missal, revised as noted above by the Decree of the SecondVatican Council and published by the authority of Pope Paul VI ("CatholicResources," 1). Anglicans, ofcourse, permit women to receive ordination to the priesthood whereasCatholics do not. If one compares these two figures, it becomes quite clear that inboth of these Christian liturgical celebrations, introductory rites precedethe profession of the faith through the Apostles or Nicene Creed whichserves as the major profession of faith in both rituals. . Thus the Mass is viewed as eschatological: it is in the here and now the sacrifice offered upon the cross (and indeed all of Christ's work), for in it time is swallowed up in eternity. The fourth section of the Mass is the Eucharistic Prayer. Available at www. Both also include readings from the Epistles orthe Letters of the New Testament as well as a recitation of the Gospelthat is drawn from the books of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John that arecontained in the New Testament. The Lord's Prayer is recited at the end of the Eucharistic prayer and is followed by the exchange of the sign of peace. According to EarleE. "The Foremass consists of the Entrance (introit), procession, and chant, which are then followed by the confession, which includes a litany (Kyrie Eleison) and which ends with the Gloria. Bothceremonies permit congregational singing which may or may not be led oraccompanied by a choir. Based on the Medieval Latin liturgy of Rome,the Mass takes its name from the Latin missa (dismissed), which refers tothe ancient practice of dismissing the catechumens before the offertory.Presented below is a detailed figure identifying all of the elements thatare commonly found in the Roman Catholic Mass. Over time, as the liturgicalservices of the Anglican Church evolved, similarities and differences incomparison to the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church also evolved. The introductory prayers and rituals all move in the Massto the central moment at which under the aegis of the priest or celebrant,the act of transubstantiation takes place. The Latinhymns and chants that were associated with the Tridentine Mass of the RomanCatholic Church are rarely heard outside of a limited number of liturgiestoday though as McBrien (684) has noted, many Roman Catholic churches havereceived permission from the Vatican to continue using this form of theliturgy. The Holy Eucharist is also called the Lord's Supper, and Holy Communion; it is also known as the Divine Liturgy, the Mass, and the Great Offering." One will often see a church bulletin that says something like "9: : Morning Prayer; 11: : Holy Eucharist." This means that the church will offer a 9: service that follows the "Morning Prayer" section of the prayer book, followed by an 11: service that follows the "Holy Eucharist" section of the prayer book. Cairns (327), the Anglican Reformation in England began without adominant ecclesiastical leader such as Martin Luther or John Calvin and wasdominated by the British monarch (initially Henry VIII) who became thehead of the national church. "Mass; General Information." 2 5. As Richard P. . The Communion is the fifth, and climactic, section of the Mass. This worship service is distinct and may be thesole ritual attended by members of the faith. San Francisco, Ca.: Harper, 1994.Mitchell, L. Introductory rites, including an entrance song, penitential rite, and opening prayer, precede the Word liturgy, and a concluding rite follows communion."Mitchell (1) notes further that the structure of the Roman Catholic Masshas remained relatively const5ant since the 2nd century, although somevariations have been introduced in modern times. With Vatican II, many of thedifferences between these two great expressions of Christian belief havebeen eliminated or at least reduced. "Episcopal Vocabulary: Anglican Order of the Eucharist," 2 5.
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