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This paper defines forensic entomology, and how it is used to determine time of death. It describes procedures for analyzing the crime scene and gives two cases where forensic entomology was used.
Forensic entomology is the application of the study of insects andother arthropods to legal issues Staerkeby Medicolegal forensicentomology involves arthropods in such events as murder suicide and rape physical abuse and trafficking in contraband Arthropods are carrionfeeders i e they live on the dead and if you know the different stagesof an insect\'s life you can calculate the time since the egg was laid anduse this to estimate the time of death The exact procedure used for analyzing the crime scene will
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These features of the crime scene should all be photographed, withclose-ups of the insects before they are collected. Traps should be used tocollect insects, and insects, eggs, larvae, and pupae should be collectedfrom the body. Any trauma ormutilation of the body, burning, covering, burial or movement should benoted. Insect predation, such as beetles,ants, wasps, and insect parasites should be noted. Introduction to forensic entomology. The exact procedure used for analyzing the crime scene will depend onthe type of habitat, but is usually divided into five steps (Staerkeby,2 ). The finding of insects onthe body typical of other habitats may suggest the body has been moved.The number and kinds of flying insets should be noted. Weather data can be obtained from the local meteorologicalstation, i.e. Live samples should be collected here if possible forrearing in the laboratory for identification.Case Histories A ferry skipper was condemned to life imprisonment for the stabbingdeath of a man the day the skipper arrived in town in September at 18 hours (The erroneously, 2 4). Finally, specimens shouldbe collected from directly under and in close proximity to the remains(with one meter) after the body has been removed. Forensic entomology is the application of the study of insects andother arthropods to legal issues (Staerkeby, 2 1). Secondly, climatological data at the scene should be collected.Thirdly, specimens should be collected from the body before it is moved.Fourthly, specimens should be collected from the surrounding area (up to 5m from the body) before the remains are removed. (2 ). Retrieved at: http://folk.uio.no/mostarke/forens_ent/introduction.shtmlStaerkeby, M. Ambienttemperature in close proximity to the body, ground temperature body surfacetemperature, under-body interface temperature, maggot mass temperature andsoil temperature immediately after the body is removed should be taken, andthe soil temperature one or two meters from the body. The secondtube contained live maggots obtained from the polythene bag wrapped roundthe victims head when transported to the mortuary. (2 1). sericataafter 1 to 11 hours, and those of Phormia terranovae Robineau-Desvoidyafter 14 to 16 hours. (2 4) Retrieved at: http://folk.uio.no/mostarke/forens_ent/casehistories/ kathleen_mcclung.htmlStaerkeby, M. ReferencesKathleen McClung. Medicolegal forensicentomology involves arthropods in such events as murder, suicide, and rape,physical abuse, and trafficking in contraband. This meant the skipper could not have been guilty and he wasreleased from prison. Infestations in thearea of egg, larval, pupal or adult stages alone, or in combinations shouldbe noted. (2 4) Retrieved at: http://folk.uio.no/mostarke/forens_ent/casehistories/ferry _skipper.html The first step is to visually observe and make notations at thescene. The type of habitat should benoted - urban or rural, suburban, aquatic, forest, roadside, closedbuilding, open building, lake, pond or river. One tube heldmaggots which were small and dead and recovered from the mouth. When the autopsy had been performed thenext day, masses of yellowish fly eggs and numerous newly hatched larvaewere present, and recorded in the autopsy report. These were second-instar larvae, and when these were cultivated on raw beef, the flies wereidentified as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. temperatures and precipitation, and any other notable events,extending back to when the victim was last seen. This was not brought upat trial. The case was reopened eight years later, and at the trial adoctor pointed out that no sarcophagus flies are active in Hungary after18 hours in the month of September, and that at 26 degrees C, theyellowish eggs of Lucilia caesar hatch after 13 hours, those of L. Arthropods are carrionfeeders, i.e. they live on the dead, and if you know the different stagesof an insect's life, you can calculate the time since the egg was laid, anduse this to estimate the time of death. Analyzing the crime scene for enotomological evidence. It may also be useful to observe the activity of insects at the crimescene because entomologists will see things which other crime sceneinvestigators may miss (Staerkeby, 2 ). Kathleen McClurg was murdered in Guilford during the night of 2 -21June, 1969, and post mortem performed on June 24, from which two tubes ofmaggots were removed and sent for analysis (Kathleen, 2 4). Retrieved at: http://folk.uio.no/mostrke/forens_ent/crime_scene_forens _enty.shtmlThe erroneously condemned Hungarian ferry skipper. This meant they could not have hatched if they hadbeen laid the day the autopsy was performed, and must have been laid theprevious day before 18 hours because the flies are not active after thistime. The exact position ofthe body should be noted, with compass directions, which parts are incontact with substrate, which are in sun or in shade during normal daylighthours, position of extremities and head. Soil temperaturesshould be taken directly under ground cover, at 4cm soil depth, and at 2 cm soil depth. Estimates of the dateof pupation suggested oviposition had occurred between 21 and 24 of June,verifying the date of death. Insect activity within three tosix meters of the body should be observed for flying, crawling, restinginsect adults and larvae or pupae this close to the body. larvae, pupae, eggs, empty pupal cases, fecal material, exit holes,feeding marks on the remains, etc. Immature insects of particular adult insects should be notede.g. An insect's life cycle is determined by temperature and humidity inthe environment, so this must be noted (Staerkeby, 2 ).
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