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Analysis of performance management of networked communications.... More...
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Analysis of performance management of networked communications. Definition and importance of PM. How and why to implement PM. Obstructions and obstacles to implementing PM. Management controls. Example of crash of Amazon.com. The field of network performance management. Growing demand for powerful on-line applications. Challenges PM faces. Table of Contents. Appendix.
Table of Contents Introduction 1 Literature Review 3 Definitions 4 Importance of Network Performance Management 7 Implementation 9 Obstructions/Problems 11 Tasks and Goals 13 Summary 15 References 18 Appendix PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN NETWORKED SITUATIONS
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One of themost popular and easy to use of these tools is TRENDsnmp+ which allowsdeployment of distributed SNMP managers to critical locations throughoutthe network. * Bounded time period of evaluation At the end of the performance period, the employee and the technologyis evaluated against these competencies. Furthermore, by making it possible for employees to link the goalsthey are working on to higher-level objectives, it becomes possible to sortthe roll-up of progress information by type of goal. Throughout the performance period, they can update their goals (which,in the real world, have a habit of changing within a few weeks of beingset), indicate the progress they are making against each goal, and note anyresource needs or obstacles encountered. Therefore NPM measuresand controls how much data is traveling across each segment, at whatpercentage utilization and also determines rational methods to determinethe efficiency of the physical topology of the network handle traffic(Fritz 2 Online). This would allow some timely troubleshooting to take place.Conversely, drilling down to see the details for those goals that areprogressing exceptionally well would enable the CEO and other levels ofmanagement to be aware of -- and to celebrate -- successes. The connections between Data Networks, CostVariances, and Schedule Variances is shown in chart 1. 5: 5 p.m. At the beginning of a performance period employees would set goals,say a 22 percent improvement in data processing, or a reduction in down oroffline time by 4 percent. Similar to dealing with human performanceproblems, a networked PM system Just as in the non-technical side of abusiness, the goal is of the organization, manage these efforts day to day,measure employees' performance, reward them accordingly, and stimulateindividual development to better enable employees to contribute to theorganization's success. The Amazon situation described above is an example of an Internetperformance management problem. And its even more difficult tomonitor the response time for this message. This would enable theCEO, for example, to check progress on only those goals that are related tothe corporation's number one strategic objective. It will be recalled that RFC 1271 has this limitation requirement, asquoted from RFC 1271. Along with the performance notes and updates entered by bothemployee and manager over the course of the performance period, this 36 input offers the manager a wealth of information on which to base abalanced, data-based evaluation. Technology, however, is making it possible to bring more of the idealof PM into reality. It requires analysis and control of the throughput and errorrates. Although each individual network element may be thoroughly understood,combining the elements into a complete network and understanding theinterrelationships and end-to-end network effects of these combinations isa formidable task for which there are no easy answers or quick references.The challenge is getting even more complicated due to speed increases. Therefore, this literature review will not be the typical one thatwould be expected, where expert A is quoted, and then experts B, C, and Dare also quoted on the extent to which they differ or agree with expert A.Rather, this will be a "trend" literature analysis, and all of the sourcescited will be found on the Internet. In addition, since the field of network performance management is soyoung (less than two years in its current configuration), so powerful(effective network performance management can aid in keeping a company's e-commerce site on the Internet) and so time-intensive, most of theinformation published on the Internet is of a technical nature. Definitions "Network Performance Management" refers to how well the network servesits users. The object type together with an object instance serves to uniquely identify a specific instantiation of the object. To accurately implement an NPM program, the company must use thescientific method to first of all identify the performance needs. But imagine, if employees note the progress they are making by givingeach of their goals a preliminary "rating," these ratings can be rolled upin a simple frequency distribution. Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed the Management Information Base or MIB. (1998, March 9), Application-centric WAN accounting,Online at http://www.nwfusion.com/newsletters/nms/ 3 9nml.html RFC 1271 Online at http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/htbin/rfc/rfs1271.html The real challenge in PM isto create user-friendly systems that support multiple, different searchstrategies to appeal to the differing cognitive styles of the varioususers. From 2: 8 p.m. This kind of access to really usefulperformance information is unprecedented. The network topology of modern client/server networks is much morecomplex and requires the use of special PM tools, specifically developed toaddress network performance management for SNMP based networks. Table of ContentsIntroduction 1Literature Review 3Definitions 4Importance of Network Performance Management 7Implementation 9Obstructions/Problems 11Tasks and Goals 13Summary 15References 18Appendix PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT IN NETWORKED SITUATIONS Introduction On March 16, 2 , Amazon.com (AMZN), one of the leading E-commercesites on the Internet, crashed at 2: 8 p.m., Pacific Coast Time. This process would be doneonline and the results for each employee made available to the respectivemanager, thus enabling the manager to make a thoroughly informedevaluation. Objects in the MIB must be defined using the subset of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) defined in the SMI. In particular, each object has a name, a syntax, and an encoding. (2 . However, baselining, trend analysis, performance management,and capacity planning require more data collected for much longer periodsof time. Our staff of project management professionals has an impressive range of skills and shirt-sleeves experiences which cover the full project management body of knowledge. In today's competitive global market, whether an organization is partof a high technology industry or a mature, established one, it isimperative that time-to-market for new product development be minimized andthat capital projects be timely and cost effective. The "how" side of performance was managed by creating a competencymodel that specifies the behaviors expected by the organization, or theprocessing and connectivity speeds and accuracies that are thought to beneeded by effective technology. In companies where employees are connected to theInternet, each employee can have an "account" within an online PM system.At the beginning of a performance period, employees can log on and see thecompetencies that apply to them and document the goals they've agreed towith their managers. Thisprocess includes but is not limited to: * Defining time intervals and data to be captured * Capturing and maintaining performance database metrics and measurements * Modifying performance data for modeling tools * Defining report parameters, including the establishment of thresholds, frequency of alarm rates, and granularity and cohesiveness analysis. (2 , March 16. There hasnot been time (or even need) for the typically reflective ponderings ofacademics in densely written peer review journals. TRENDsnmp+ supports databasereplication, direct access to the SQL database for data manipulation, andincludes a variety of standard baseline, trend, and exception reports. (Copies of the sites cited areincluded in the appendix. Managers can access theirsubordinates' accounts, keep up to date on their progress, and see wherehelp or additional resources might be needed. In this paper, we will detail a few of theproblems which companies have encountered and lay out some parameters forestablishing an enduring system. Helping network managers to understand thehealth and well-being of their networks, custom-tailored baseline, trend,and exception analysis reports, based on SMF data, are periodically createdby powerful data manipulation tools all of which must comply with RFC 1271. This paper will adopt the following structure. Managers would be involved in the goal settingin an effort to ensure that individual goals are aligned with theorganization's. Most companies have five or more years of contracts, invoices,customer service letters, internal memos, memos, and other such documentswith valuable commercial content that comprises much of the intellectualcapital of the company. Network performance management includes the processes ofquantifying, measuring, reporting, and controlling of responsiveness,availability, and utilization for the different network components. March 2 ), Common Criteria for IncreasingConfidence, NetworkWorldFusion, Online athttp://www.nwfusion.com/columnists/2 / 32 brusil.html Couzin, J. It will begin with aliterature review, in which the primary authorities on the issue ofperformance management of networked communications will be analyzed withinthe following categories:* Definition of Performance Management* Importance of Performance Management* How to Implement Performance Management* Why to Implement Performance Management* Obstructions and Obstacles to Implementing Performance Management* Management Controls Following this analysis, a Summary section will draw the appropriateconclusions. Because of the close proximity of SNMP managers to their agents, thewide area network is not overloaded with SNMP based performance traffic.However, due the nature of the distributed SQL based relational database,all data can be accessed for analysis, allowing presentation of a totalpicture for overall network performance. It is also useful for the CEO, or any other manager who presidesover a slice of the organization, to be able to see a roll-up that showshow things are progressing relative to all the goals currently being workedon -- at any time during the performance period. Many past "solutions"have resulted in only incremental improvement, if any improvement at all.More often than not, they have only added further complexity andbureaucracy to a process that, at its heart, is logical andstraightforward. References Brusil, P. The company wouldn't disclose the financial details of the loss, butsome analysts suggested that the outage could have cost upwards of $5 , in missed revenues. PST), Net Speed Ain't seen Nothin'Yet, http://wired.com/news/print Morency, J. Usually, the supervisor conductsthe evaluation, but increasingly multi-source assessment is being used toprovide a more accurate evaluation. It'simportant to emphasize: network performance has to be measured end-to-end(Morency, 1998, March 9). The purpose of a performance management (PM) system is to align everyemployee's work efforts with solid objectives of performance to competebetter and more effectively. At the end of the performance period, the technologyemployees and the technology's performance against the goals is evaluated. Thecompany has one of the most technically advanced performance managementsystem in the world, and has spent more than $4 million building andmaintaining its systems. This certainly helps address the coordination challenge every companyfaces. For those not familiar with a terabit, "that's a trillion bits --equal to all of the daily traffic on the Internet for the entire world.The Lucent fiber could transmit three times the daily global Internettraffic every second" (Kahney, 2 , Online). to 3: 9 p.m. (2 , March 2 ), Gigabit Internet Hits, Network World,Online at http://www.nwfusion.com/research/2 / 32 revgig.html Kahney,L (2 , March 21, 8 p.m. And in general, thereare two broad categories of performance management technical problems --Intranet and Internet. The great potential here is that, because employees and managers arecontinuously interacting with Web-based PM system, the CEO (or any level ofmanagement, for that matter) is now capable of getting an almost real-timeread on how things are going. For example, in an SNA environment, special System Management Facility(SMF) records are cut not only for network related events but also forperformance data and statistics. Itsupports SNMP MIBs and RMON (Remote MONitoring) extensions based data. Literature Review Because the field of network performance management is both technicaland time sensitive, what literature that exists is primarily in the form ofnews flashes on Web sites, company press releases on new products, and theoccasional wrap up opinion piece in a magazine such as Wired or InternetWorld. They can also keep ongoingperformance notes pertaining to each employee, for coaching anddevelopmental purposes. "Amazon engineers didn't know what caused the crash, but we're workingto find out. Awealth of information, with detailed data on use and performance of each ofthe individual segments and components in the network, has to be collectedand analyzed for network performance management and capacity planning. To this end, it is generally agreed by the companies working to createprojects and services for performance management, and the companies thatare involved in the act of PM. For many companies, problems associated with creating a comprehensiveperformance management system have been daunting. The number of parameters thathave to be taken into account for managing network performance of modernopen multi-vendor multi-protocol networks is large. This sounds daunting, asthere could be thousands of goals being worked on, assuming that eachemployee might be working on 5-1 goals at any one time. The name is an object identifier, an administratively assigned name, which specifies an object type. Each one of the remote managers polls local SNMP agents, processes theinformation and stores it into an SQL based distributed database. However, most of the serious PM problemshave to do with the Intranets that are installed in most major companies. The ever growingdemand for powerful on-line applications and expanding data-processingnetworks in combination with the complexity of network topology andcommunication equipment is creating new time and data crunches in whichcomponent regulation is becoming essential. Theperformance of each of the individual network components, while important,is less critical to measure than end-to-end results. Summary Because a Web-based system brings all the PM information together in asingle database, it is possible for everyone's goals, for example, to bevisible to all employees. How to Implement Network Performance Management With the rapid growth and modernization of communication technology,performance management becomes increasingly challenging. With those caveats understood, the first elementto examine is just what is performance management? Asample HTML report using this tool is included in the appendix. At the end of the performance period, during the evaluation stage,multi-source evaluations might be conducted. What happened? Regardless of industry (telecommunication, pharmaceutical, public utility, transportation, E&C, health care, biotechnology, financial services), our services will help companies to improve the selection, organization, planning, monitoring, control and closeout of projects ("Our Services" Online). Performance Management Tasks and Goals The first task is to determine what aspects of the network must meetinternal PM standards within the legacy or SMNP standards of architecture.Normally these reports for network behavior, utilization, performance,response times, convex coding, packet dillution and so on can be producedfor any given period of time. AsKahney (2 ) points out, "Setting a new record, researchers at Lucent'sBell Labs have for the first time managed to push an astonishing 3.28terabits per second of data over a long stretch of fiber-optic cable(Kahney, 2 , Online). Although certain restrictions are typically puton who has access to what, it can be valuable to let employees see whatorganizational objectives other employees are working on. * At minimum, the reports should include: -- Network Traffic Analysis -- Trend Analysis -- Protocol Analysis -- Throughput Analysis -- Utilization Analysis -- Recommendation for changes and upgrades Obstructions and Problems in Implementing Performance Management In modern dynamic client/server networks, where network topologychanges frequently, it is usually difficult to estimate and predict theexact route taken by a particular message. For human convenience, we often use a textual string, termed the OBJECT DESCRIPTOR, to also refer to the object type (RFC 1271 2 Online) Contexting the object descriptor is simple in a legacy system, sincethey have an abundance of both real-time and historical performance data,and open network management using SNMP based tools. Since both of these have to do with networkconnectivity, both WAN and LAN, it is essential to focus on both areas. PST), Amazon.com's one hourhiccup attack, Online at http://www.thestandard.com/article Fritz, J.N. So a performance period, therefore, has the following elements: * A goal to solve a problem * Personnel who will manage and operate the technology to solve that problem * Application of a software process, or implementation of a new hardware configuration to solve the problem. The number of links and their use, latency and use of each node,propagation delay, and many other factors can affect network performance. The system would enable the CEO to lookat this distribution and then drill down to see the details, for example,of just the goals that are at risk. One of the advantages Internet and Intranet technology brings to PM isthat it can keep the process "alive" throughout the performance period.Employees and their managers interact frequently with the online system--making notes, updating goals, checking progress, noting potential problemsincluding security (Brusil, 2 , Online). The Importance of Network Performance Management Typically companies make a distinction between what technologies(software, switches, servers, DB operands) accomplish (their results) andhow effectively the technology achieves those results (their behaviors).Organizations attempt to manage the "what" side of the performance cointhrough a goal-setting or Management by Objectives process. What truly matters is how well the performance is perceived by endusers, in other words the performance of the network as a whole. Technology-enhanced PM, however, has the potential toyield a quantum improvement in PM execution. PST, Amazon userswere met with a message informing them that 'our store is closedtemporarily'" (Couzin, 2 , Online). Is technology-facilitated PM just another in a long series of"innovations" and "solutions" to the PM challenge? An Appendix following this report lists all sources cited. However, these usuallycollect and present information for a limited period of time. Chart 1: Typical PM Connection Areas [pic] (Source: http://www.pmassoc.com/services.html The web site for PM Associates, one of the leading PM outsourcers thatis leading the industry today says in its vita on the web a statement ofgoals that (while not appreciably different from any of the other 2 , businesses estimated to be providing PM outsourcing, is quoted here sinceit is one of the better-stated. These include: project management process design and re-engineering; information technology development, implementation and systems integration; risk management; project management education and training; project scheduling; cost estimating; and project baseline implementation. Thisapproach is sufficient for real-time problem determination and faultmanagement. Although she acknowledged that the company is concerned aboutsuch system failures and the loss of business that inevitably accompaniesthem,[the spokesman] also pointed out that a site the size of Amazon isbound to hiccup now and then" (Couzin, 2 , Online). According to the flash news release from Wired, "The technical problemwas internal and was not a denial-of-service attack, according to Amazonspokeswoman Patty Smith.
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