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Discusses role of performance appraisals in personnel management.... More...
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Discusses role of performance appraisals in personnel management. Research on the topic. Various purposes including identification of employee talents and behavioral tendencies; useful feedback; control of employee behavior. Beneficial influence on human relations of an organizatioin. Negative aspects such as job dissatisfaction. Performance appraisals & litigatrion. Value of effective performance appraisals.
Performance Appraisals Performance appraisal has long been one of the most hotly debated topics in personnel management circles and fortunately has also been the subject of a great deal of research. Gabris and Ihrke (2001) believe that performance appraisal serves many purposes within organizations, among which the provision of periodic, formal feedback to individual staff members figures significantly. A second and somewhat more debatable purpose of the performance appraisal is management’s attempt to control employee behavior and results. Most performance appraisal instruments, in the view of Gabris and Ihrke (2001) are designed around managerial objectives and the types of behavior that management would prefer to routinize in employees. A final purpose of the performance appraisal rests upon its use as a
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HarvardBusiness Review, 78(1), 21-22. Scotto, D. The legalramifications of performance appraisal: The growing significance. Performance appraisal reappraised. Aneffective performance appraisal that facilitates the development ofpositive human relations in the organization should be tailored to thetasks of the employee and not to some arbitrary and generalized set ofcriteria. Medical Laboratory Observer, 31(3), 38-44. Strategic Management andBusiness Policy. L., & Hunger, J. In other words,it is not an opportunity for criticism alone, but an opportunity for two-way communication that can inspire and motivate employees to improvedperformance. They are effective tools for moving theorganization forward (Martin, et al, 2 ). Developing a performance appraisalformat that accurately assesses an employee's contribution to theorganization is seen by Scotto (1999) as inherently difficult. Wheelen, T. These researchers found that a relationship existed betweenperformance appraisal perceptions and job satisfaction levels. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Improperly applied,performance appraisals damage employee trust and serve no meaningfulpurpose. Testing the longitudinal impact of work variablesand performance appraisal satisfaction on subsequent overall jobsatisfaction. Properly done, the performance appraisal can also sensitize managersto the needs and concerns of their employees and help to identifyorganizational systems, processes, or jobs that could benefit fromredesign. This represents a more than 1 percent increase in the number ofsuch cases in just five years. PublicPersonnel Management, 29(3), 381-4 2. (1999). C., Bartol, K. A second and somewhat more debatablepurpose of the performance appraisal is management's attempt to controlemployee behavior and results. Grote, D. Gabris and Ihrke (2 1) believe thatperformance appraisal serves many purposes within organizations, amongwhich the provision of periodic, formal feedback to individual staffmembers figures significantly. Used in this manner, the performance appraisal is lessthreatening and more beneficial to all concerned (Grote, 2 ). A final purpose of the performance appraisal restsupon its use as a tool for managing employee compensation and identifyingemployees capable of advancing in the organization or in need of skills,training, or education (Martin, Bartol, & Kehoe, 2 ). T., & Ihrke, D. Martin, D. Viewed from this perspective, performance appraisals can becharacterized as a potentially beneficial influence on the human relationsaspects of organizations. (2 ). M., & Kehoe, P. Grote (2 ) and Scotto (1999) both made the case that manyperformance appraisal systems failed to capture sufficient informationabout the vast majority of workers. Does performance appraisalcontribute to heightened levels of employee burnout? The question of the degree to which performance appraisals arenecessary in organizations was discussed by Wheelen and Hunger (2 ).According to these researchers, a recent survey of 34 corporate plannersand human resource executives from 24 large American corporations revealedthat approximately 8 percent used performance appraisal systems toidentify employees' and managers' talents and behavioral tendencies so theycould place an individual with a likely fit to a given competitivestrategy. E. They alsofound that performance appraisals that address work-specific or taskmeasures rather than behavioral or attitudinal measures were less fearedthan the latter. Performance Appraisals Performance appraisal has long been one of the most hotly debatedtopics in personnel management circles and fortunately has also been thesubject of a great deal of research. Boththe number of organizations using a performance appraisal system and theuses of the results of such systems are increasing. In 1999, more than22, employment discrimination claims of which well over 4 percentincluded performance appraisal issues were filed in United States federalcourts. In this context, Gabris and Ihrke (2 1) examined the relationshipbetween employee perceptions of performance appraisal and both employeeburnout and experienced job satisfaction among workers for a countygovernment. References Blau, G. Theeffective performance appraisal helps to ensure mutual understanding ofgoals and objectives and serves as a locus for facilitating individual andorganizational growth. Scotto (1999) believes that the first step in conducting a successful,proactive, and ultimately empowering performance appraisal is to lose theidea that a performance appraisal is nothing more than a report card. (2 ). D. However, many workers and managers alike fear performance appraisalsand tend to regard them in a negative light. Blau (1999) suggests thatperformance appraisals can contribute to job dissatisfaction and to thedevelopment of negative employee attitudes toward their company. (2 ). Asuccessful performance appraisal uses a three-pronged approach of reviewingthe past, analyzing the present, and planning the future. (1999). (2 1). Additionally, more than 77, employmentdiscrimination claims were registered in 1999, with the Equal EmploymentOpportunity Commission. Gabris, G. Martin, et al (2 ) reported that performance appraisals have becomea focus of discrimination litigation in cases addressing layoffs,promotions, discharge, merit pay, or a combination of these actions. Human Relations, 52(8), 1 99-11 6. Used to genuinely identify competencies and toassist workers at all levels of an organization in maximizing their ownperformance and thereby their careers, the performance appraisal is abeneficial tool (Blau, 1999). Performance appraisals: More than just goingthrough the motions. Public PersonnelManagement, 3 (2), 157-168. Most performance appraisal instruments, inthe view of Gabris and Ihrke (2 1) are designed around managerialobjectives and the types of behavior that management would prefer toroutinize in employees. M. Again, performance appraisals were frequentlyincorporated into these claims, with many claimants asserting that unfair,discriminatory, and inadequate performance appraisal systems were beingused to their detriment (Martin, et al, 2 ).
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