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Obstacles to women advancing in a corp. Overview & examples (Delta Air Lines & Air France).... More...
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Obstacles to women advancing in a corp. Overview & examples (Delta Air Lines & Air France).
INTERCULTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE "GLASS CEILING" The "Glass Ceiling" refers to a hidden or unstated barrier to advancement within a corporation (Moshavi, 1998, ENT 2). In her article discussing that issue, Moshavi reported that women and minorities are the fastest-growing group of business owners, and that growth should be attributed to Corporate America. She cites polls from Catalyst and other women's nonprofits that showed women and minorities were dissatisfied with their corporate jobs. Women cited the "glass ceiling" and lack of challenge twice as often as women whose businesses are more than 20 years old. When women quit their jobs, "top reasons for leaving were, in order: inflexibility; glass-ceiling issues, such as not being valued; unpleasant environment; and lack of challenge.
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Gibson, C.B. The airline industry is "service intensive" and the success of anairline comes from the perception of it being a "nurturing" enterprise.Both Delta and Air France claim to be discrimination-free in their hiringpolicies (by law in America and by culture in France.) Women at the Bottom As organizations experience a huge influx of women into theworkforce, researchers have been studying such gender differences.According to Adler and Izraeli (1988), there are essentially twocontrasting views --"equity" (which assumes similarity between male andfemale contributions) and "complementary contribution" (which assumesdifferences between male and female contributions and strives to recognizethe value of these differences)(Adler & Izraeli, 1998). Two women appear inthe top management echelon -- Vicki B. Women in management worldwide.Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc. Air France iscontrolled totally by men.Delta Air Lines The third-largest airline in the U.S., Delta's 7 ,846 employees helpkeep it profitable. In her articlediscussing that issue, Moshavi reported that women and minorities are thefastest-growing group of business owners, and that growth should beattributed to Corporate America. A second inferencethat can be deduced is that the ceiling exists, but is not talked about.The fact, as pointed out above, that of the two companies, only two womenhold senior executive positions does suggest that the ceilings are inplace. The debate between proponents of these two views continues and someevidence indicates that the "complementary-contribution" model is gainingground. Black women felt far more affected by the glass ceiling andracial discrimination than other groups. On theother hand, a search for "glass ceiling" by itself yielded 2,443,812 hitsfrom all of the Search Engines. This can safely be assumed, and could be tested by further field andphone interviews with women employees at these two companies in these twocountries. Moshavi, S. INTERCULTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE "GLASS CEILING" The "Glass Ceiling" refers to a hidden or unstated barrier toadvancement within a corporation (Moshavi, 1998, ENT 2). With 46,385 employees and a 1998 employee growth rate of 3.4% the companycould hardly be accused of growing. Why Women fly the corp, Business Week,ENT2. With an 11.2% employee growth and a 17.2 percentgrowth in net sales, the company is staying afloat. This paper will analyze those chargesby examining two companies within the same industry -- Delta Air Lines andCompagnie Nationale Air France. She cites polls from Catalyst and other women's nonprofits thatshowed women and minorities were dissatisfied with their corporate jobs.Women cited the "glass ceiling" and lack of challenge twice as often aswomen whose businesses are more than 2 years old. Escarra is EVP of Customer Serviceand Jenny R. One inference that could be drawn is that the problem of "glassceiling" has not come up at either of the companies. Snapshots of the two CompaniesAir France Described as "mostly unprofitable" it is clear that the "state-ownedFrench air carrier is changing -- as little as possible" (Hoover's Online). (1988). and Izraeli, D.N. Agood indication of whether a corporation has a glass ceiling or not can beestimated by a study of the top corporate officers. However, a 27.4% sales growth during 1998 suggested that the companymight be doing something right (all figures are from Hoover's Online). (1995, June 22). This mayexplain why women today are more likely to be interactive leaders" (Gibson,1995, 258).A Study A case specific request of Yahoo, Infoseek, Northern Light, andElectric Library of "glass ceiling" + "Air France" and "Glass Ceiling" +"Delta Air Lines" yielded exactly 11 hits, none of them valuable. When women quit theirjobs, "top reasons for leaving were, in order: inflexibility; glass-ceilingissues, such as not being valued; unpleasant environment; and lack ofchallenge. Since the topic of "glass ceiling" is soprofusely studied, the response to the survey placed on the WWW couldelicit female responses from the two companies. They are to derivesatisfaction and self-esteem from helping others while men had to appear tobe competitive, strong, tough, decisive, and in control, women have beenallowed to be cooperative, emotional, supportive, and vulnerable. The most economical way to do this would be to establish a Website to conduct the research. (1998, May 25). Gibson (1995) points out that women, as perceived by maleexecutives interviewed in four countries are supposed to be "cooperative,supportive, gentle, and to provide service to others. Hispanic women had the fewestcomplaints" (Moshavi, 1998, ENT 2). Poole is EVP of In Flight services. An investigation of gender differencesin leadership across four countries, Journal of International BusinessStudies, 255-28 . References Adler, N.
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