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Role & significance in construction bidding. Innovations, technology, quantity surveying, design, software. Outline.... More...
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Paper Abstract:
Role & significance in construction bidding. Innovations, technology, quantity surveying, design, software. Outline.

Paper Introduction:
COST ESTIMATING AND CONSTRUCTION BIDDING Outline I. INTRODUCTION. A. Research purpose. B. Research scope. II. COST ESTIMATING IN CONSTRUCTION. A. Elements of the cost estimating process. B. Requirements for cost estimating in construction. C. Quantity surveying. D. Function of the construction cost estimator. E. Job activities of the construction cost estimator. F. Flow of the construction cost estimating process. III. CONSTRUCTION BIDDING. A. Initiating the bidding process. B. R

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Theedit feature of the program allows the construction cost estimator toswitch back and forth between steps, adjust measurements, changeassemblies, revise estimating formulas, and a host of other actions. architectural software program forAutoCAD Release 13 with Timberline's Precision Collection of estimatingsoftware. Through comparison ofspace requirements, initial cost estimates for the proposed project may bedeveloped. Applying informationtechnology,.construction cost estimators develop data that are used in theconstruction bidding process. Research purpose. TheBuildsoft Takeoff program also includes a database feature that facilitatesboth the creating and the updating of a take-off and costing library(Carmichael 2 2). 1989: 1 7.Cook, P. A further linking of field and office quantity surveying wasintroduced in 1992 with the use of palm-top computers (Haksever 8). As an example, a door(object) in ARCHT will report its height, width, opening percentage, framewidth and shape. A. COST ESTIMATING IN CONSTRUCTION. J. The major contribution to quantitysurveying efficiency provided by this system was the ability to recordcosts and specifications of all types of buildings and construction informats that enable easy retrieval and manipulation to arrive at cost plansfor new projects. Then, if an estimator takes off a concrete slab withopenings for stairwells, the slab (object) will report its area minus theopenings. A. D. Cost Estimating. B. This function of the Buildsoft program familyintroduces computer network systems into the quantity surveying function. "Quantity Surveying." Construction Computing (Winter 199 - 1991): 27.Ongley, E. A. Once takeoff has occurredfrom the CAD drawing, the estimator can continue to refine and modify theestimate ("Eliminates" 6 61 4 ). Beginning of computer support for construction cost estimating. "Cost Estimators: Planning the Budget." Occupational Outlook Quarterly 31 (Spring 1987): 29-32.Carmichael, J. One of the latest additions to the set of computer tools for thequantity surveyor is the Windows-based Buildsoft Takeoff estimatingsoftware (Carmichael 2 2). The combination of off-the-shelf softwareand a network of personal computers permits quantity surveyors to prepareestimates, prepare tenders, perform cash flow projections, and conduct costplanning. When a new project is proposed, jobs with similarcharacteristics are retrieved from the database. "Buildsoft Takeoff." Builder Oct. When the twoprograms are used together, purchase orders can be automatically generated,vendor prices may be automatically updated, and automatic comparisons maybe made between take-off prices and the prices actually paid for materialson a specific job. F. New York: Wiley, 1991.Taylor, R. D. B. C. Initiating the bidding process. A single cost estimator may look at every aspect of a smallproject. M. When the quantity surveyor arriveson site, all relevant data acquired on site can be entered into the palm-top computer to produce a complete on-site valuation of the job. B. IV. A. Summary of research findings. A. Vertical and horizontal planes, called reference planes, also areintroduced. The commondenominator for implementing unit-price contracts is quantity surveying.Under this computerized system, dimensional data from the blueprint wasrecorded and was used with designated formulae to compute quantities ofwork items. "Computer-Aided Design and Technical-Economic Comparison of Alternative Building Frames." Tutkimuksia - Finland Oct. Function of the construction cost estimator. G., and P. The rest of the beams and columns can be created just byadding vertical reference planes. During the takeoff process, the cost estimator mustmake decisions concerning equipment, sequence of operations, and other suchmatters. When pre-defined, estimating details are automatically assigned to an object as thedesigner draws, making the integration seamless. V. B. Works CitedBluford, V. Whenever a change is made to the drawing,the estimate is automatically updated. After reviewing thearchitect's drawings, specifications, and other bidding documents, the costestimator visits the site of the proposed construction to gatherinformation on access to the site, availability of electricity, water, andother services, surface topography and drainage, and other conditions. June 1978. This program facilitates the take-off process,permits the editing of take-off information, and manages a comprehensivecatalog of cost items. Research scope. II. Each bid package issued must contain specific schedules and detailedinformation regarding how each trade is expected to interface with ongoingwork as well as with contracts that have not yet been awarded (Geller S4).During bid negotiations, the project manager must clearly set forthexisting job conditions and what is expected of each trade contractor.Unwarranted promises of optimum working conditions, made in order to obtainreduced trade prices, simply set the stage for future conflicts andpotential claims. Construction cost estimators can change priceseasily while using the software system. The ultimate objective of thisprocedure is to harness statistical methods to the task of exploringrelationships between design of a building and its cost, leading to thedevelopment of a valid estimating method. Beginning in 1989, computerized support for quantity surveying becameavailable through off-the-shelf software that can be used on a network ofpersonal computers (Chevin 1 7). Job activities of the construction cost estimator. On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project costsummary is prepared by the chief estimator. New unit-prices were added, modifications were made, and newfactors such as price escalation were included, thus updating the financialprogress and status of the project. Development of information technology applications to support construction cost estimating. The objects arestructural units, such as beams, columns, slabs, and walls. 1987: 1-67.Schlick, H. The Buildsoft Takeoff program permits either the take-off of one costitem at a time or on an automatic step-by-step basis (Carmichael 2 2). Ifthe project is a remodeling or renovation job, the cost estimator mustconsider the need to control noise and dust or to perform work in such away that occupants can continue to carry out their activities as normallyas possible. This process, called the quantity survey. 1-6.Stewart, R. Unit-price data were added to compute estimates.As soon as a unit-price contract was awarded, the award data were input andused throughout the construction phase. 1986): 373-377. As the great majority of cost estimatingin construction in the contemporary period is performed through theapplication of information technology, a major emphasis in this review isplaced on such application. Computers are increasingly used in estimating.Although computers cannot always be used for the entire estimating process,their use can relieve construction cost estimators of much of the drudgeryassociated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations,leaving estimators with more time to study and analyze projects. "Considerations For Network Design For Water Quantity and Quality Surveys in Canada." Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada 21 (1986): 33-49.Pajari, M. "As Easy As Apple Pie." Building 13 Oct. "Valuations At Your Fingertips." Construction Computing (Spring 1992): 8.Johnston, N. In 1986, simulation was added to the computerization of the quantitysurveying function through the development of a simulation quantities-pricegeneration model (Taylor and Bowen 373). The implication is that the trend toward moretechnological applications will continue, with those expenses being offsetby money saved from increasingly precise cost estimates. All constructioncost estimators, however, must use various forms and perform sometimescomplicated calculations. The five basic tools necessary to combine thebasic elements of a construction cost estimate into a good estimate are ateam of estimators or the estimator, methodical approach, knowledge anddata, computational ability, and publication ability. The simple-to-operate software program is based ontraditional quantity surveying practice, and it provides for taking-off andpricing in detail, drawing, and contract specification. Computerized support for quantitysurveying was expanded in the early to mid-198 s (Ongley 33). With aPC-compatible, palm-top computer, quantity surveyor can copy a job preparedusing an in-house estimating system and valuation software into the palm-top computer before leaving the office. A. One of the most important innovations to theprocess of cost estimating in construction is the application ofinformation technology to the function. Bidding for Contractors. KETIV Technologies and Timberline Software have introduced a newgeneration of CAD-to-estimating integration ("Eliminates" 6 61 4 ). SUMMARY. The entry of this information is a one-time procedure. These quantities formed the basis for further computations throughoutthe life of a project. In 1987, a computer method for the tentative structural design of beam-column-framed buildings was developed (Pajari 2). The BuildsoftTakeoff program facilitates working with different take-off alternatives(Carmichael 2 2). CONSTRUCTION BIDDING. Allowances for the waste of materials are made asthe takeoff proceeds. 1994: 2 2.Chevin, D. Forexample, a model of a rectangular hall can be generated by giving the datafor one slab field, two long beams, four columns and four walls connectingthe columns. To initiate use of the system, information is entered inrelation to company-specific procedures and requirements, calculationpreferences, mark-up policies, sub-contractor conditions, and buildingprocedures. 2nd ed. COST ESTIMATING AND CONSTRUCTION BIDDING This research reviews the processes of cost estimating in constructionand construction bidding. APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TO CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATING. "Generating Reliable Quantities-Price Data." Building Research & Practice 19 (Nov.-Dec. INTRODUCTION. The model canalso be used in optimization as well as in preparing data for the CAD(computer aided design) program used for the final design. This research showed how complex thisprocess has become. Users of the interface can tag existing CAD objects withappropriate cost, resource, and other estimate information through a simplemenu selection, or they can pre-define estimating assignments. C. The information developed during the site visit is recorded in asigned report that is made part of the project cost estimate. Quantity surveying is the formal process of determiningquantities from drawings and specifications and is a part of the broaderprocess of estimating wherein costs are associated with such quantities(Cook, 11). Theintegration links KETIV's ARCHT V.13. These planes fix the geometry of the building. A software program facilitating rapid take-off was introducedin 199 (Johnson 27). E. The interface also allows estimators to obtain more informationfrom the CAD drawing ("Eliminates" 6 61 4 ). E.Lansing, MI: N.p., 1978. An importantcomponent of the process of cost estimating in constructions is quantitysurveying. B. On a new, large construction project, the cost estimating processbegins with the decision to submit a bid (Bluford 3 ). Quantity surveying. This research reviewed the processes of cost estimating inconstruction and construction bidding. Frequently, the design work controlling thecompletion of early-bid packages is, in fact, restrained by owner decisionsand design calculations that might normally be based on later-bid packages. Computerization of the process of cost estimating in construction didnot begin until the late 197 s (Schlick 1). Requirements for a bid. After visiting the site, the construction cost estimator mustdetermine the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have tofurnish (Bluford 3 ). The basic elements of a construction cost estimate are labor hours,materials and subcontracts, travel costs, other direct costs (such ascomputer services), labor rates, indirect costs, administrative costs, andfee or profit (Stewart 29). The model includesintegrative modeling of the structures, dimensioning of the slabs andmembers, automatic quantity surveying, and cost evaluation. Bowen. From the project design schedule, those drawings which comprise eachbid package are identified, along with all of the information necessary tocomplete them (Geller S3). When thequantity surveyor returns to the office, the data can be transferred fromthe palm-top computer to the database for further use and storage. "Saving Time and Money Via Fast Tracking." Real Estate Weekly 19 May 1993: S3-S4.Haksever, A. The actual job duties ofconstruction cost estimators vary depending on the type and size of theproject or the size of the employing firm (Bluford 29). In the late 197 s, acomputerized system to administer and control construction projects wasdeveloped as a financial management tool and was applied effectively fromissuance of preliminary drawings up to completion of projects. The system incorporates the take-off process into other aspects of the building business. As construction progressed,additional data were input to enable evaluation of quantities of workcompleted. The cost estimator thenprepares the bid proposal for submission to the developer. Research purpose. Elements of the cost estimating process. Flow of the construction cost estimating process.III. This software program goes beyond the capabilities ofmost quantity surveying database libraries in that the quantity surveyorcan generate complete estimates for proposed projects through the entry ofkey database reference items. Thetopological information (information concerning the connections between thestructural units) forms a central feature of the modeling method. COST ESTIMATING AND CONSTRUCTION BIDDING Outline I. Cost estimators are the professional personnel who develop theinformation for owners and managers to use when bidding for contracts(Bluford 29). or"takeoff," is completed by filing out standard forms that provide spacesfor the entry of dimensions, number of units, cost of labor, equipment,subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs thatmay affect the project. The Buildsoft Takeoff program is designed to mesh with the BuildsoftIntegrated Construction Management System (Carmichael 2 2). Construction cost estimators compile and analyze data on allthe factors that can influence the expenses involved, including the cost ofmaterial, special machinery, and labor. "Project Integrated Management System (PRIM)." Proceedings of the Michigan Conference on Computerization in Civil Engineering. Thus, material also is reviewed inrelation to the application of information technology to the process ofcost estimating in construction. In themodeling, an object-oriented approach was adopted. Kingston, MA: Means, 1993."Cost Planning System." Constructing Computing (Winter 1989-199 ): 34-37."Eliminates Time-Consuming Manual Takeoff from Drawings; New Generation of CAD-Estimating Integration Previewed at A/E/C Systems." Business Wire 6 June 1995: 6 61 4 Geller, R. Thetopological data can be used efficiently while creating the model. By contrast, several cost estimators, each with a specialty-suchas electrical work or excavation, concrete, and forms-may work on a largerproject. Requirements for cost estimating in construction. Information technology interfaces between quantity surveying and the cost estimating function in construction. The Gleeds Cost Planning System also has enhanced the efficiencyof quantity surveying ("Cost" 34).

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