REVISED BETA EXAMINATION.
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Describes & evaluates intelligence test for illiterate, non-English speaking, language-impaired.... More...
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Describes & evaluates intelligence test for illiterate, non-English speaking, language-impaired.
REVISED BETA EXAMINATION (BETA II) Introduction The Revised Beta Examination (Beta II) is evaluated in this research. The findings of the evaluation are presented in relation to (1) test description, (2) purpose of the test and population target, (3) test norm population, (4) factors measured by the test, (5) test strengths and weaknesses, and (6) test reliability and validity. Test Description The Revised Beta Examination is designed as a group test, although the instrument can be administered on an individual basis (Kellogg & Morton, 1978, p. 3). The Revised Beta Examination is a nonverbal general intelligence test. The basic revision of the Beta Examination was performed by C. E. Kellogg a
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3). 1278) also contended that the reliability testing of theRevised Beta Examination demonstrated that the instrument is "sensitive tolearning effects," a characteristic that may compromise the test-retestreliability procedure employed. Reckase, M. The Beta Examination instrument hasundergone several revisions since the introduction of the Group ExaminationBeta in 192 (Hsu, 1989, p. 22). 1279) concluded that the "BetaII examination has many years of use to support its value. The Revised BetaExamination is a nonverbal general intelligence test. Morton. 3). (1978). 1276-1278. Summary The Revised Beta Examination (Beta II) was evaluated in this research. 22). 22). 1279) stated that with "moreadequate technical documentation this test could probably be recommended asa good measure of nonverbal skills." Test Reliability and Validity The reliability of the Revised Beta Examination was establishedthrough the administration of the instrument to a "sample of 79 students(4 males and 39 females) aged 16-17 enrolled in a large suburban schooldistrict in the South" (Kellogg & Morton, p. Test Strengths and Weaknesses Some training is required for personnel who administer the RevisedBeta Examination because some subjects require assistance with practiceproblems (Kellogg & Morton, p. . The problem typesaddressed in the six tests are, respectively, (1) mazes, (2) coding, (3)paper form boards, (4) picture completion, (5) clerical checking, and (6)picture absurdities. MentalMeasurements Yearbook. With respect to testreliability, Hsu (p. W. This statistic "means that the chances are approximatelytwo out of three that an examinee's 'true' Beta-II IQ is within 4.6 pointsof the obtained IQ" (p. (1989). The major criticismof the Revised Beta Examination is an absence of sufficient technicaldocumentation included in the Revised Beta Examination (BETA II) Manual.If such technical documentation were provided, the likelihood is that thetest would be even more widely used. Louis Hsu (pp. (Vol. E.Kellogg and N. Factors Measured By the Test The Revised Beta Examination "yields an overall estimate of abilitywhich can be expressed either as an IQ or as a percentile" (Kellogg &Morton, p. Kellogg, C. References Hsu, L. When Revised Beta Examination isadministered to large groups, proctors are usually required to assist theadministrator to both enforce time limits and to help with subjectsrequiring assistance with practice problems. The Revised Beta Examination is designed as a group test, although theinstrument can be administered on an individual basis. With moreadequate technical documentation this test could probably be recommended asa good measure of nonverbal skills." The Revised Beta Examination appears to be an acceptable instrumentfor the measurement of nonverbal intellectual ability for the general adultpopulation. Reckase (p. 3). The resulting test-retest reliability coefficientwas r = .91, which "is sufficiently high to indicate that the individual IQscores man be meaningfully interpreted" (Kellogg & Morton, p. A second revision of theinstrument was introduced in 1978. (Vol. Summed scale scores may then beconverted to a norm--either an IQ or a percentile--through the use oftables provided in the Revised Beta Examination Manual. At present, however, the Revised BetaExamination, known as Beta II, is the only version (form) available. The basic revision of the Beta Examination was performed by C. The materialpresented in the manual is more than adequate to support interpretation oftest results. 1276). Test Norm Population The Group Examination Beta was developed by the United States Armyduring the First World War for the assessment of the intellectual abilityof illiterate recruits, and the instrument was formalized in 192 (Kellogg& Morton, p. Highland Park, New Jersey: The GryphonPress, pp. The findings of the evaluation were presented in relation to (1) testdescription, (2) purpose of the test and population target, (3) test normpopulation, (4) factors measured by the test, (5) test strengths andweaknesses, and (6) test reliability and validity. 1277) also noted that, although thestandardization sample used to generate Beta II norms may closely resemblethe American population, the "Beta II manual provides no information aboutthe extent to which this sample is representative of the populations of'illiterates,' 'non-English speakers,' and those with 'other languagedifficulties,' which the Beta II was designed to test." Thus, Hsu (p.1277) held that test validity ("the major weakness of the Beta II is thelack of evidence that this test is . 1276-1277) found the stimulus materials provided withthe Revised Beta Examination Manual to be "generally large enough, well-drawn, and unambiguous." Hsu (p. 1279). 25). . 1). The Revised Beta Examination Manual is quite complete. A test-retest procedurewas used in the establishment of instrument reliability. 3). D. (2nd ed.). Highland Park, New Jersey: The GryphonPress, pp. 1). With respect to validity, Beta II IQ measurements have also beencompared with those of the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) througha convergent construct validity assessment (Reckase, p. 1279).Correlations between the WAIS Full Scale IQ measurements and the Beta II IQmeasurements were r = .66 for the 35-44 year old age group and r = .64 forthe 18-19 year old age group (Kellogg & Morton, p. 1278) further stated that the "short timelimits of Beta II constitute a possible source of bias against variousminority groups." Mark Reckase (1989, p. E., & Morton, N. 3). a measure of intelligence forilliterates, non-English speakers, and others with language difficulties")is a major problem with the Revised Beta Examination. The instrument, however, does not appear to be nearly soacceptable as a measure of nonverbal intellectual ability for the statedtarget population of illiterates, non-English speakers, and other personsexperiencing language difficulties. . Test Purpose and Population Target The Revised Beta Examination is designed to measure the "generalintellectual ability of persons who are relatively illiterate, or non-English speaking, or suspected of having other language difficulties. Itmay also be used as a nonverbal measure for members of the generalpopulation" (Kellogg & Morton, p. Revised Beta ExaminationManual. The Revised Beta Examination is a nonverbal generalintelligence test. "The BETA-II examination has many years of use to support its value"(Reckase, p. The sum of scaledscores is converted to an IQ equivalent by age group, of which seven areincluded in the applicable table in the Revised Beta Examination Manual.The conversion procedure for percentile equivalents is identical, and aseparate table for this purpose is provided in the Revised Beta ExaminationManual. In Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. MentalMeasurements Yearbook. . 1278) criticized the Revised Beta Examinationbecause clear evidence is not provided of the instrument's capacity "tomeasure the construct known as general ability" for all age groups.Reckase (p. In Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. Test Description The Revised Beta Examination is designed as a group test, although theinstrument can be administered on an individual basis (Kellogg & Morton,1978, p. The most recent revision of the test in 1984was performed by Robert Lindner and Milton Gurvit. 22). Raw scores on each of the six tests are converted to scaled scoresthrough the use of a table provided in the Revised Beta Examination Manual. Review of the Revised Beta Examination (BetaII), Second Edition. A "true" test score is considered to be "theaverage score an examinee would obtain if tested a large number of times,and if the effects of practice, fatigue, and the like could be eliminated"(p. The six scaled scores are then summed. The 1934 revisionwas designated as the Revised Beta Examination. 1278-1279. 22). The Revised Beta Examination consists of six separate teststhat measure different aspects of nonverbal ability. Since that time, the 1934 revision hasbeen know as the Revised Beta Examination, First Edition, or Beta I, whilethe second revision (the version currently in use) has been known as theRevised Beta Examination, Second Edition, or Beta II. REVISED BETA EXAMINATION (BETA II) Introduction The Revised Beta Examination (Beta II) is evaluated in this research.The findings of the evaluation are presented in relation to (1) testdescription, (2) purpose of the test and population target, (3) test normpopulation, (4) factors measured by the test, (5) test strengths andweaknesses, and (6) test reliability and validity. Thestandard error of the measurement ("a statistic permitting the constructionof a band of error around a test score") for the Revised Beta Examinationwas 4.6 (p. W. The test is easily administered, and in spite of itslongevity continues in wide use. (1989). Reckase (p. The instrumentwas administered to each subject twice with an interval of three weeksbetween administrations. Review of the Revised Beta Examination (Beta II),Second Edition. The Revised BetaExamination is published by The Psychological Corporation. 1278) found no particular major faults with thereliability testing procedures employed, but did contend that the testmanual provides "no information about reliability of the Beta II for thetargeted populations." Hsu (p. . New York: The Psychological Corporation. The Group Examination Beta was revised in 1934 to makethe instrument more suitable for use civilian purposes. M.
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