SOCIOLOGY OF EMOTIONS.
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Definition, conflicting concepts of organismic, interactional & social constructionist models.
GROWTH IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Introduction This research reviews growth in one area of theoretical development in sociology. The theory area in which growth is reviewed is the sociology of emotions. Theory growth in sociology is occurring in the contemporary period in relation to emotions (Jackson, 1993, pp. 201-220; Palmer, 1991, pp. 213-229). The development of a sociological theory of emotion, however, is controversial (Peck, 1994, pp. 1-9; Bockover, 1992, pp. 45-56). Concepts and Theories Sociology of emotions is "a name for a body of work that articulates the links between cultural ideas, structural arrangement, and several things about feelings: the way we wish we felt, t
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223) held that human "cognitive capacity has itsstrict limits and we can only hold things together because we shy away fromquestioning our conventional understandings very far. Arguments and Counter Arguments Collins (1985, pp. (1985). The theory area in which growth is reviewed is the sociology ofemotions. 161-17 ), however, contended that the needexists to address the interaction of physiological and symbolic aspects ofemotion. Humboldt Journal of SocialRelations, 18(2), 45-56. The organismic model posits that "social influences enter in only toelicit feeling, and to regulate expression" (Hochschild, p. In Millman, M., & Kanter, R. 223-24 ), although disagreeing on thefeasibility of constructing a new sociological theory of emotions,nevertheless recognized the importance of the interactionist approach tounderstanding self, emotions, and social experience. Themes and variations in the sociology ofemotions. Another voice. Fisher and Chon (1989, pp. Durkheim and the socialconstruction of emotions. Three predominant models of emotion are present in the literature--theorganismic, the interactional, and the social constructionist (Hochschild,p. The concept of the sociology of emotions melds theory from psychologywith that of sociology. Stratification, emotional energy, and transientemotions. Researchagendas in the sociology of emotions. 214-227), is not emotion. A similar set of outcomes derivesfrom "symbolic significance in the way we dress and groom ourselves" (p.171). Rather, theargument is that such factors represent interactive processes best studiedas social acts involving self and other interactions. Human emotions: An expandingsociological frontier. Research agendas in the sociology ofemotions. K. Science as process, social change, anddiscipline. The organismic model and the social constructionist model, therefore,are the polar opposites on the continuum of the theory of emotions. D. Ideology and emotion management: Aperspective and path for future research. 171), the "entire society can be visualizedas a long chain of interaction rituals, with people moving from oneencounter to another. L. 27-57). 79-95) placed the social constructionistapproach to emotion in an ecological context that includes the broadersocial experience. AmericanJournal of Sociology, 91(6), 1336-1355. (1988, May). Ratner, C. (1985, Fall). Various outcomes are possible, depending onhow each person's cultural capital matches up with the other person'scultural capital." Denzin (1987, pp. K. K. Emotion begins with the self and others joined andseparated into episodes of co-present interaction (Collins, 199 , pp. K. One important type of ritual within thisconception is the power ritual. Ratner (1989, pp. D. 12 ). Lacking control of 'ritual property,' they withdraw from the'frontstage' world and identify instead with the 'backstage' world of theirinformal groups" (pp. The death of sociology in the 198 s.American Journal of Sociology, 93(1), 175-18 . The emotions. The presentationof the concepts and theories was followed by a consideration of thearguments and counter arguments of proponents and opponents of a theory ofthe sociology of emotions. Behavior becomesemotional only when it is so interpreted by the person, and is then broughtinto self-interactions. Theinteractionist model builds on the base of the organismic model to positthat social factors "enter not simply before and after but interactivelyduring the experience of emotion" (p. A social constructionist critique of thenaturalistic theory of emotion. Feeling, according to the social constructionist model ofemotions, "is entirely constituted by social influences" (Hochschild, p.12 ). Journal of Social Issues, 44(3), 79-95. 1-9; Bockover, 1992, pp. The sociology of emotions. 117). D. Collins, R. 157-159) considered emotions to be the product ofinteractions between rituals. Kippax, S., Crawford, J., Benton, P., & Gault, U. (Ed.). Jackson, S. 118-119) defined emotion as "an awareness of fourelements that we usually experience at the same time: (a) appraisals of asituation, (b) changes in bodily sensations, (c) the free or inhibiteddisplay of expressive gestures, and (d) a cultural label applied tospecific constellations of the first three elements." A feeling, incontrast to an emotion, is less "marked by bodily sensation; it is a'milder' emotion" (p. The social constitution of emotion. those who give orders are in charge of the organizational rituals." Atthe opposite end of the continuum, the "people who only take orders . Theinteractionist model occupies a middle ground on this continuum with arecognition of both biological and social factors as causes of emotions,and an assumption that the biological and social factors interact with oneanother. 119). Micro-Social Theory: Perspectives on Sociological Theory, 2, 123-147. Oxford, England:Oxford University Press. 27-57. Denzin, N. 119). GROWTH IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Introduction This research reviews growth in one area of theoretical development insociology. Bockover, M. Hochschild (pp. (1991, July-September). . Summary This research reviewed the concepts and theories related to thesociology of emotions, which is a significant area of growth in thedevelopment of sociological theory. Bycontrast, people in the lower social classes experience "powerful pressurefor social conformity" and "think in terms of particulars rather thanabstractions" (p. According to the interactionist model, othersocial factors help to shape feeling as feeling is being experienced by aperson (Gordon, 1985, p. 171). An exploration in the sociology of emotions.Sociology, 27(2), 2 1-22 . Pure behavior,according to Collins (1985, pp. These social factors help shape the emotions ofthe people affected by them. R., & Nunley, E. Denzin (1985, pp. Greenwood(1992, pp. (1989, Summer). E. New Ideasin Psychology, 1 (1), 1-18. Thus, the interactionist modelrecognizes more "points of social entry" than are recognized by theorganismic model (p. 12 ). .are alienated from the official ideals in whose name they are orderedaround. 175-18 ) argued that the desire of Collins toconstruct a sociological science of the social is questionable because theinterpretive sociology's that Collins wants to consolidate defy the sciencebeing sought. Collins, R. The sociology of emotions. Emotion as lived experience. . Social Psychology Quarterly, 52(1), 1-9. (1992). Social classes, according to Collins (p.158), "are divided according to how much they give orders or take orders .. Kemper (199 , pp. Micro-sociological theories of emotion. 13 ). A note on emotionality, self, andinteraction. (1988, Fall). Annual Review ofSociology, 15, 317-342. The major difference between these models is the significanceaccorded in them to social influence. In Kemper, T. D. According to Collins (p. Is 198 s sociology in the doldrums? The socialconstructionist perspective on the theory of emotion maintains that adultemotions depend upon social concepts. 117). American Journal of Sociology, 89(2), 4 2-4 9. Collins, R. (199 ). 2 1-22 ; Palmer, 1991,pp. Thoits, P. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 1 (3), 211-23 . The development of a sociological theory of emotion,however, is controversial (Peck, 1994, pp. Collins (1985, p. Peck, D. (199 ). Sociological Inquiry, 64(1), 1-9. 159). (1985, Fall). 3-23; 199 , pp. Collins (p. 119). 1-18), however, declared a pox on both your houses in contendingthat both approaches--social constructionist and interactionist--err inassuming that emotions are constituted by social inferences about or sociallabeling constructs of emotion. (199 ). . Denzin, N. 119). 45-56). 317-342) also supported the interactionist approachto emotions as opposed to the social constructionist approach. Social relations and emotions: A structuralapproach. Thoits (1989, pp. 159). Hochschild, A. D. Denzin, N. (1985). The socialconstructionist approach allows the cognitive and social views of emotionto be integrated. 213-229). (1987, July). 211-23 ) defended the social constructionistapproach to emotions as a superior interpretative theory. A., & Chon, K. . (1992). 1336-1355) viewed disagreements concerning the theory ofthe sociology of emotions as a conflict between adherents of emotion andcognition. Denzin (1983, pp. Three sociological traditions. Garden City, NewYork: Anchor Books, pp. Society holdstogether as well as it does . British Journal of Social Psychology, 27(1), 19-33. I. (1989, March). 158-159). The principal concepts and theories ofthe sociology of emotions were described and discussed. (199 ). Franks, D. 2 7-237) opposes thesocial constructionist approach to emotions, espousing instead a positivistview that specific emotions are derived from social structures. A. References Averill, J. Franks (1985, pp. 3-23. Garden City, NewYork: Anchor Books, pp. . . Greenwood, J. (1988, March).Constructing emotions. (1994, Winter). Fisher, G. In Millman, M., & Kanter, R. (1989). While psychology has tended to address emotionsand the effects of emotions in individual interpersonal contexts, thedevelopment of a sociological theory of emotions expands the concept tosocietal levels. SymbolicInteraction, 8(2), 161-17 . Sociological Spectrum, 11(3), 213-229. Albany, New York: State University ofNew York Press, pp. Kemper, T. (Ed.). 117-142. SymbolicInteraction, 8(2), 223-24 . R. P. (1983, September). Emotion functions as a sense; thus, emotion isa part of our sentient nature. The social constructionist model of emotions posits that biologicalsensations have no causative role in the creation of emotions (Hochschild,p. 4 2-4 9) argued that emotions are not mere cognitiveresponses to physiological, cultural, and structural factors. Within the context of the uncertainty thatcharacterizes a person's perception of her or his standing in a society,"one important clue is how we feel" (p. 1-9)endorsed this thesis when they contended that human society is created andrenewed by the intense arousal that occurs in gatherings and assemblies.Averill and Nunley (1988, pp. . As emotions are conceived in theinteractionist model, social forces provide shape to biological sensations,thereby creating "a strip of experience with a name, a history, a meaning,and a consequence of a certain sort" (Hochschild, p. Another voice. Gordon, S. 119). Palmer, C. D. 19-33). because we assume things are normal untilthey break down so badly we cannot avoid making some kind of repair.Collins (1988, pp. 119). (1993, May). 2 7-237. 171) contended that interactionist ritual chains "show howmicrointeractions add up to the larger class structure of modern society."Greetings and other forms of politeness tie people together or else setthem off as status unequals" (p. The social constructionist modelsaccords the greatest level of importance to social influence, followed inorder by the interactionist model and the organismic. In Kemper, T. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, pp. Kemper, T. Grief as an emotion: Asocial-constructionist perspective. Theory growth in sociology is occurring in the contemporaryperiod in relation to emotions (Jackson, 1993, pp. People in "higher social classes have aculture that corresponds to a complex division of labor: abstract ideas,individualism, thinking in terms of long-term consequences" (p. Concepts and Theories Sociology of emotions is "a name for a body of work that articulatesthe links between cultural ideas, structural arrangement, and severalthings about feelings: the way we wish we felt, the way we try to feel, theway we feel, the way we show what we feel, and the way we pay attention to,label, and make sense of what we feel" (Hochschild, 199 , p. Prominent in the cognitive approach is the contention that it isimportant to incorporate the concept of appraisal into the study of emotion(Kippax, Crawford, Benton, & Gault, 1988, pp. Thesociology of emotions "supplements and deepens theories about how peoplethink or act" (p.
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