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Review of literature on impact of student's thoughts about learning process on reading & memory performance.... More...
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Review of literature on impact of student's thoughts about learning process on reading & memory performance.
The term "metacognition" refers to a person's cognition about cognition, or a person's knowledge of cognitive processes and states such as memory, attention, knowledge, conjecture, and illusion. The issue is not how the person executes these processes but what they know and believe about these processes. Metacognition has been examined from a number of different perspectives and in order to explain the different types of cognitive processes about which a person may have knowledge. Wellman (1985) considers the origins of metacognition and finds that an understanding of the origins can be based on one axiom and three supportable propositions. The axiom is definitional and asserts that metacognition consists of a large multifaceted theory of mind. The three propositions are as follows:
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the first is thatanswers to the question raised are affected by our views of how readingtakes place and thus how it should be taught. Here again,skill in metacomprehension usually demands an awareness of the interactionbetween person, task, and strategy as well as the nature of materials.Metacomprehension is thus 1) an awareness of one's level of understandingduring reading and 2) the ability to exercise conscious control overcognitive actions during reading by the invocation of strategies tofacilitate comprehension of a particular type of text. New York: Academic Press: 77-1 2.Nelson, T.O., D. "The origins of metacognition." In D.L. Mason tests the model in two ways, testing the claim that self-regulative behaviors appear in conjunction with tasks that are at anappropriate level of difficulty and that foster reading. They used two interventions: corrective feedbackand strategy training, preceded and followed by baseline and maintenanceperiods. Hart (1965) had earlier related metacognition and metacognitivemonitoring to memory and to the feeling-of-knowing experience, also calledthe tip-of-the-tongue experience, studied at last since the time of WilliamJames. This is inkeeping with the research of Gordon and Braun (1985), among others.Garner's book provides an extensive analysis of metacognition andmetacognitive development as each relates to the reading process and tocomprehension in reading. Theytested the postulates of an earlier study that metacognition is fundamentalto effective reading and that effective reading can be attained through twomajor avenues: application of rules and strategies, and development of asound knowledge base on the topics to be read. Taken together, these various researchers are showing the range ofmetacognitive knowledge and control possible and ways in which these can beapplied to practical learning and memory situations. Most studies had concentrated on the retrieval process, but hartsays what is needed is a study of the phenomenon itself. Metacognition, cognition, and human performance: volume 2. and A.S. He defines metacognitive knowledge as that segment of anindividual's stored world knowledge that has to do with people as cognitivecreatures and with their diverse cognitive tasks, goals, actions, andexperiences. Gordon and Braun (1985) studied 57 children utilizing differentmethods of instruction for the experimental and the control groups. Gordon and Braun confirmedthese postulates. Garner alsoapplies schema theory involving reader expectations for text input--aschema is an abstract knowledge structure derived from repeated experienceswith objects and events and is knowledge stored in memory that plays animportant role in the interpretation of new information. Brown and Palincsar (1982) discuss the relationship betweenmetacognition and learning disabilities. Garner (1987) also considers metacognition and readingcomprehension,but her point of view is that of a teacher trying to inducecomprehension with an interactive model of reading comprehension based onan understanding of metacognitive processes in reading. "Metacognitive processes: reading and writing narrative discourse." In D.L. Metacognitive constructs arepartially acquired through particular social and cultural experiences. Metacognitive knowledge, states Flavell, consists primarily ofknowledge or beliefs about what factors or variables act and interact inwhat ways to affect the course and outcome of cognitive enterprises. Waller. The results ofthe two studies cited show: 1) that story reading tasks can foster the useof metacognitive constructs; 2) metacognitive constructs appear to beinitiated by private monitoring of clearly modeled tasks and inaudibleshadowing of correct responses; and 3) metacognitive constructs seem to befostered by repetition of instruction affording children opportunities tocarry out, express, and evaluate information conflicting with their ownknowledge. Metacognition has been examined from a number ofdifferent perspectives and in order to explain the different types ofcognitive processes about which a person may have knowledge. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.Gordon, C.J. Metacognition, cognition, and human performance: volume 1. Palincsar (1982). Forrest- Pressley, G.E. "Accuracy of feeling-of- knowing judgments for predicting perceptual identification and relearning." Journal of Experimental Psychology, 282-3 .Wellman, H. Metacognition, cognition, and human performance: volume 2. Moreempirical studies are found of specific metacognitive processes andapplications, Gordon and Braun (1985) consider the role of metacognitionin reading and writing. "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: a new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry." American Psychologist, 9 6-911.Garner, R. Mason (1985) examined the issue with respect specifically to earlyreading, and he rightly finds it important to consider the matter withrespect to what a typical child knows about reading before going to school,just as it is necessary to know what a typical child knows of the world.Mason finds three hazards to the study of early reading. The segment may also be activatedunintentionally and automatically by retrieval cues in the task situation.Flavell concludes that metacognitive knowledge probably influences thecourse of the cognitive enterprise without itself entering consciousness.Also, it may become or give rise to a conscious experience. Forrest-Pressley, G.E. Theauthors rightly note that their analysis suggests mechanisms that areprimarily static because they do not emphasize the possibility of changesin the feeling of knowing, on which research is just beginning. (1985). The field, however, is notin agreement about how reading occurs or how to teach children to read.The second issue is when children should be taught, and assumptions aboutwhen children learn affect our view of what a child knows about readingbefore going to school. Forrest-Pressley, G.E. Regulation refers to"executive control within information-processing models" and involvespreplanning and planning in action. The issue isnot how the person executes these processes but what they know and believeabout these processes. "Cognitive monitoring and early reading: a proposed model." In D.L. His researchshowed in two experiments that the phenomenon could be considered arelatively accurate indicator of memory storage. Metacognitive memory is found not to be fundamentally differentfrom other knowledge stored in long-term memory, and a segment of it may beactivated as the result of a deliberate, conscious memory search for aneffective strategy, for instance. (1987). Anunderstanding of metacognition can make possible the training of thecognitive skills of the learning disabled, and Brown and Palincsar discusstraining studies--blind training, informed training, and self-controltraining--leading to the offering of an ideal training strategy. (1985). Metacognition and reading comprehension. MacKinnon, and T.G. "Memory and the feeling-of-knowing experience." Journal of Educational Psychology, 2 8-216.Mason, J.A. It issuggested that children with learning problems are in desperate need ofinterventions that will improve their metacognitive skills, bothdeclarative and self-regulatory. Gordon and Braun examineonly the issue of metacognition with respect to rhetorical devices andinvestigate the extent to which specific instruction in story schemafacilitates awareness of such structure as a metacognitive framework forboth reading comprehension and writing. (1979). MacKinnon, and T.G. Poor problem solvers lack the neededspontaneity and flexibility in both preplanning and monitoring. Theystate that an ideal training package would consist of practice in the useof task-appropriate strategies, instruction concerning the significance ofthose activities, and instruction concerning the monitoring and control ofstrategy use. Gerler, and L. The processes employed are not mirrorimages of each other, but readers and writers do share at least twocritical attributes in the process of making meaning: 1) world knowledge,and 2) knowledge of certain rhetorical devices. They examine the question ofmetacognitive monitoring as it relates to FOK phenomenon. the third hazard about answering questions aboutwhat preschool children know about reading derives from the extent to whicheducators believe that reading-readiness test-score differences are more afunction of reading and cognitive skills than of social and metacognitiveconstructs surrounding reading tasks. MacKinnon, and T.G. Metacognitive experiences are any conscious cognitive oraffective experiences accompanying and pertaining to any intellectualenterprise. Wellman (1985) considers the origins of metacognition and finds thatan understanding of the origins can be based on one axiom and threesupportable propositions. Narens (1984). His model predictsthat children can acquire knowledge about three domains of reading beforethey enter school: the function of print; recognition of common letterpatterns; and the use of metacognitive strategies to regulate their readingactivity. New York: Academic Press: 1-32.----------------------- 3 Gordon and Braun (1985) hadsimilarly addressed considered implications for educational practice andfound that instruction should focus on making children aware of the activenature of the meaning-making process and that fostering metacognitiveprocesses was one way of stimulating active involvement in these processes. The threepropositions are as follows: 1) very young children, 2- and 3-year-olds, grasp the existence ofthe mental world, the realm of mental states and processes that are markedoff from that of physical objects or behavioral acts; 2) children of this age and younger also understand much about thedistinction between reality and not reality, and they can easilydistinguish, in certain clear cases, real from not-real things, being fromseeming; and 3) the development of an understanding of mind and an understandingof reality are intertwined, and a distinction between being and seemingrequires some theory of mind which derives from contrasting that categoryof experience with reality.Wellman also notes that many exaggerated claims have been made for theimportance of metacognitive knowledge, and in general these claims stressthe practical utility of knowledge about cognition for the execution ofvarious problem-solving performances, such as knowledge about memory forremembering, of knowledge about language for speaking or reading. This is aspecific aspect of metacognitive processes that applies in other retrievalsituations as well and that sets forth different strategies and processesat work in recall. The model makesimportant distinctions between readers and between text types. (1965). Among the reasons offered why a person does recallinformation are recognition of cue, expertise on topics, actuarialinformation about the normative difficulty of the item, and socialdesirability, meaning the person reports a high feeling of knowing based onwhat he or she thinks they ought to know so as not to appear stupid. Waller. Mason (1985) suggests a theoretical perspective of early reading thatwill incorporate metacognitive constructs and the need for children tolearn self-regulative functions of planning, monitoring, and evaluatingtheir early reading activities as they learn to read. and C. She demonstrates practicalapplications of metacognitive theory and research by showing how suchinformation relates to classroom instruction. With respect to reading, theyconsider the concept of metacomprehension, a specific type of metacognitionthat is defined as metacognition as it relates to reading. thethree major categories of these factors or variables are person, task, andstrategy. Waller. Garner also provides a discussion of how totrain students to use strategies that will increase comprehension and drawupon metacognitive processes in doing so. Nelson, Gerler, and Narens (1984) continued along the same line asHart and considered the theoretical mechanisms underlying the feeling-of-knowing (FOK) phenomenon: trace-access mechanisms, subthreshold strength,and forward-backward associations. Flavell (1992) offers a model of cognitive monitoring to trace thewide variety of cognitive enterprises occurring through the actions andinteractions among four classes of phenomena: 1) metacognitive knowledge;2) metacognitive experiences; 3) goals (or tasks); and 4) actions (orstrategies). The most successful training sequence was that in which thestudents first received corrective feedback concerning answers to questionsby referring to the text and then by receiving strategy training. "Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed, self-control training." Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities, 1-18.Flavell, J.H. Flavell's analysis gives a general sense of the interaction ofdifferent metacognitive processes, just as Wellman's article suggests theorigins of metacognition without testing the hypothesis fully. They find that two broaddefinitions of metacognition are distinguished and yet related: knowledgeabout cognition and regulation of cognition. New York: Academic Press: 1-76.Hart, J.T. Like any bodyof knowledge, it can be inaccurate, can fail to be activated when needed,and can fail to have a beneficial or adaptive effect. Both readers and writers, they state, share thecommon goal of making meaning. Braun (1985). To test their model, Brown and Palincsar set out to teachstudents to paraphrase and summarize sections of the tests they werereading, anticipate questions that might be asked, and predict what theauthor might say next. ReferencesBrown, A. Metacognitive monitoringis suggested to provide an efficiently functioning memory-monitoring systemof a fallible storage and retrieval system. The axiom is definitional and asserts thatmetacognition consists of a large multifaceted theory of mind. The term "metacognition" refers to a person's cognition aboutcognition, or a person's knowledge of cognitive processes and states suchas memory, attention, knowledge, conjecture, and illusion.
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