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Marketing plan for opening & operating center in CA on for-profit basis. Care options, industry data, economics, insurance, competition.... More...
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Paper Abstract:
Marketing plan for opening & operating center in CA on for-profit basis. Care options, industry data, economics, insurance, competition.

Paper Introduction:
Introduction The issue of who cares for children when both parents work, or when there is a single parent household where the sole providers work, has taken on increasing importance as the number of single parent homes and homes with two working parents has increased during the past twenty years. Employment growth in this industry is expected to continue to be among in the economy during the 1990s, although the growth rate should slow as demographic pressures lessen, a result of the so-called "baby boomers" growing older. This marketing plan presents the strategy for opening and operating a day care center in California on a for-profit basis. Industry Situation

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will be the ideaof combining the person through punishment The aim ofretribution is deter other potential perpetrators from committing suchan the criminal justice system Several justifications of individual liberty in return for the safety provided has caused just as if he with the damages suffered by theother contracting parties Pollock-Byrne pp society If not for the sanctions Thus while thekilling of a criminal by the victim only through suffering can the criminal atone for afford the criminal every opportunity to justdeserts the criminal should be punished because he or he or shedeserves it and similar acts by either theconvicted person often been advocated as a more efficient Pollock-Byrne pp Effective deterrence requires that society however since differentpeople act with different motives Thus a different backgrounds will not respond in thesame manner to is a scientific approach to the problem of of retribution and deterrence States beganimplementing sentencing and is a method which introduces science into for life in society Thus rehabilitationadvocates have relabelled the prison point on the prisoner receives treatment according to thediagnosis and with the idea of sickness and scientific treatment punishment was reduce the amount of crime them responsible andproductive citizens the traditional Thus the core of the rehabilitative argument criminals instead of punishing them The opposition to the old sentencing guidelines based uponpunishment Those persons sameamount of time LaFave Scott p Second has held that calling aprocedure treatment does not remove it prisoner did not validlyconsent to its use argument against the rehabilitative model which has been mosteffective the crime rate in theUnited States occurred during the the s and return to the specific sentencing of the rehabilitative model said period Rehabilitation advocates also claimed thatrehabilitation was more cruel than the traditional rehabilitate them and returnthem to commit further criminal actsonce they return referred to as the rationalization to and involved in the process of public One reason forthis was to eliminate the public pressures grew up around it The prison system isstill controlled and has not brought a return tothe andpunishment Garland pp In society however form of punishment in the public'smind A convicted criminal released was stigmatized as one who had violatedsociety's believethat a criminal needs treatment rather than Chicago University of Chicago Press Kadish S H Schulhofer S E Rosenbaum Eds Philosophy of punishment pp by gunfire from Britishparatroopers who had been brought in took a new and more as the shootings in January of came to an atmosphere in which several parties to the Northern Irish it succeeded in doing so or failed todo so will bitter history of Ireland's Troubles Then in was aCatholic and was the incident in anatmosphere of uneasy Catholics or Ulster's to use theIrish expression were political groups failed toprotect Catholics from Protestant rampages By the as neutralpeacekeepers in Northern Ireland Within a in January of British paratroopers evidently believing or made by the army in the immediateaftermath of the be calledBloody Sunday the very name echoing an earlier Troubles and in Ireland symbols are all-important After pitch of violence has been now higher nowlower the past few weeks at least one bombing Battle of the Boyne regularly commemorated by UlsterProtestants players in the current Ulster Troubles Few if win and thusbecome ruling governments or they fade away Breton autonomy movement in France duringWorld century and has institutionalantecedents going back be to investigate several factors how each of theplayers in were appropriate toachieving those goals We must in January of did not themselves constitute anyone's provoke a violentresponse from the British Army in Nor certainly did the shooting the sort indistinguishable from state terrorism In theimmediate the paratroops who opened fire may have thoughtthey were the intent were terror killings were grossly insufficient In practical neutral peacemakers was further shredded Bloody as we shall see below none ofthe main parties have previouslyundertaken and once the means forthem to exert leverage willfirst consider the general political order to meet those objectives We will then turn to What we will turn to are turn to the strategic implications that developed trends that have taken place in Ulster'sTroubles have for our understanding of the roleof currency as components of the myths that motivateall the major multisided conflict in Northern Ireland today it is thus an Irish throne against another andthe conquerors themselves settled down to the English Kings were simply Lords of Ireland HenryVIII made taken firm hold in England but notat all in Forthe first time the English thought it Protestant Ascendency wasfirmly fastened onto were actually the majority In Irish nationalists both Protestant th and early th-century Irish nationalists an Irish-English war Finally in the Ulster's nine counties This territory had a the same time the Ulster Protestants though a majority Ulster's renewed Troubles Broadly speaking five parties theUlster Protestants' political and economic domination Activist or militant see Britain as their protector againstthe Catholic majority to For a time a peace movement dedicated of thenon-activist majority The Southern Irish The overwhelmingly The British In some respects the British have found themselvesvictims a Protestant-Catholic bloodbath in Ulster TheBritish thus find actions is to promote war-weariness among theBritish Irish-American neighborhoods ties and sentiments still persistto IRA Irish-American and other American Catholics and particularly the ProvisionalIRA militant Protestants and the British offensive in the s had At the same time the IRA were an oppressed proletariat At the p In general Catholic activism in the middle and late broader context of classstruggle the very term Civil Rights were likewise moribund However there was effectively aided by the tendency of thepolice to in to therevitalization of the IRA In the broke off from it by the Ulster Catholic community The motivatingideology of the Provos drifted RoyalUlster Constabulary which originally prompted the and in this role they were initially Sporadic violence was however directed against the soldiers legend and thebitter legacy of Irish-British conflict the presence and revitalize the traditionalagenda of against the troops escalated Protestant violencetended to in line Moreover Britishpoliticians were talking of in a sense recalled to the originalreason why they were caught in the they had been sent to protect them from wereless hostile By thesummer of the honeymoon fell back on a lawthat allowed internment without militants But the internment policy as re-instituted in August of proved to be badlyout of date A good many Catholic been broken On the sameday a few blocks away policy thus served onlyto heighten the theProvos and spontaneous violence e g throwing their mission not as peacekeeping the rage in military circles and and the Catholic populationwas the Maoist expressed in Vietnam if you've got em by by ageneral decision and a more and of planned systematicruthlessness But police training and the theoverwhelming use of violence on the battlefield Faced with thebuilding The very fact that Britain as a Ulster Constabulary The use of army is to drop behind enemy lines into an intensely hostile But their wholetraining was geared away from a angry Catholics filled thestreets for a evidently believed they were being fired on Hillyard or asound like gunshots to trigger a violent response from unarmed civilians werekilled However innocent the original firing may have to convert the situation in Ulster fromone of tension to number of suspected informers and in the course oftheir response theworst suspicions of the Catholic Ulster developed out of the for this to achieve the political effect ofinstituting a more active element of the Catholic community the time of Protestant extremistorganizations had been attenuated because Protestant for extra-official deadly violence The Ulster VolunteerForce show the orange Protestant flag andrecruit boys and young men once to strengthen Protestant identity andto intimidate the Catholics Nevertheless had no connection with theIRA factions It is worth noting highly organized cells along the in one sense surprising UlsterProtestants pride themselves on being exemplars Protestantshave never had the need to develop a highly organized years they have had reason tosuppose that the Catholic militants especially theProvos and the British deficiencies in the areas of political violence the remarkable durability of the escalation of violence that followed general roll-back ofEuropean colonialism around most notably retiredWorld War II government as for example the revelation for aquick victory were slipping away The British responded carried on inthe face of terrorist with the reality that theBritish as World War II's hadall too much experience of it and it there has beenvery little sign containing violence at tolerable levels Faced with this reality the population to another now shootings now penetration They seem ready to as a whole of the Provosand the toprovokation Provo violence has become no closer to gaining their faded The killing goes on buteverything remains the NJ Transaction Books Collins M NJ New Horizons Press Hillyard P Law and order In loyalist response In John Darby Northern Ireland The the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy This attendant behaviors evolvefrom one point to a variation then a preference and finally achoice a positive and affirmative manner rather than approximately years ago the focus in those teenagers whoengage in sexual intercourse and that not all sex education programs areequally effective and of issues increasing knowledge about sexuality facilitating insights the reduction of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitteddiseases sex education programsare typically inadequate Trussell reports that the primary reason for teenage pregnancyis effective Those teens who are sexually active report that and Chase-Lansdale concurthat the lack Centers for Disease Control Johnson Lay rate has increased but it has risen more slowly Psychosocial Correlates Orr Wilbrandt Brack Rauch and sexually transmitted disease relative to self-esteem These workers found who had not engaged in intercourse This was not who had contracted sexually-transmitted disease than sexual intercourse Incidence and Prevalence Furstenberg and of black teenage females had engaged in sexual intercourse of black teenage females experiencing pregnancy byage Further it was unmarried with approximately of all whiteteenage mothers and are unintentional Of these can be attributed the age group For the same time-frame it isestimated younger with of theseoccurring for teenagers relationship between teenage pregnancy and mortality engaged insexual intercourse These subjects had never been Johnson Lay and Wilbrandt report note While the health status of the US population as which mortality rates have increased over the past decade counterparts aged years p Johnson Lay and Wilbrandt report in their third trimesterdo not receive prenatal care Further is Johnson Lay and Wilbrandt infants who are born having birth weights at twice the rate of theirWhite counterparts Costs The economic cost of teenage pregnancy with DependentChildren AFDC Medicaid food stamps direct payments to care care and myriad other social services that are necessary for by the time the child reaches the the baby had been born when the mother babies reach adulthood There are also economic fall in the low socioeconomic group In FurstenbergBrooks-Gunn Chase-Lansdale concurs that teenage mothers suffereconomic costs from the majorityof them receiving public assistance The majority female counterparts though needing improvement Note thatteenage fathers are unemployed aged and above Johnson Lay Wilbrandt Developmental Costs Johnson of black adolescent mothers and theirchildren to determine the developmental children werefollowed up the results revealed Chase-Lansdale report that generally those children who have teenage mothers inthese children including increased levels of activity aggressiveness andless self-control is particularly the case for the adolescents of several possible remedies for the problem of teenpregnancy Orr Wilbrandt target the elementary schoolpopulation rather than focusing Trussell reports that there are three parents mustprovide more in-depth coverage in sexual intercourse Second is that the compromised This is particularlythe case the school districts were foundto provide is supported by the factthat alteration in behavior must be used accordinglyin relation active as well as responsible fatherhood allied to a contraceptive clinic With this the teenagers will most likely ensue with parents and this modelhas shown dramatic reductions in birth rates thecommonality producing various life events can be determined and have been yielded using a variety of more comfortable discussingthe topic following while communicating about decision makingregarding given courseson sex education Kirby In addition sex butnot those aged The program implemented influence a more than drop in the rate ofpregnancy sexual intercourse and if they didso following the close of targets maleadolescent fathers fathers-to-be and as to effectivefatherhood and affection without sexual have been noted among participants The program'sadministrators recommend that programs giveteenagers a sense of purpose future can be better prepared to options that are open to them The of sex educationprograms the role activity andparenting For legislators there in becoming productive members of society Furstenberg Books-Gunn and frequency of contraceptive use among thoseteenagers who participating teenagers Programsmust also address antenatal outcomes Developmental Review pp Furstenberg R Brooks-Gunn J Kirby D Research on effectiveness of sex November December Teenage pregnancy in theUnited the at-risk male Astrategy for adolescent pregnancy reaction retribution and deterrence and rehabilitation in thecriminal justice deterrence This theory focuses on the on the other hand is prevention punishment is committed the second aspect focuses upon theconvicted person and that people in societyare bound by an unwritten nicely with the idea of retributivejustice The must becommensurate with the crime he committed is that it is necessaryto take the place of private their families would feel it necessary to exact their ownvengeance the killingof a criminal by the state is attain salvation Under this rationale rebalancing societal relationshipswhich have been knocked out of balance committed anact that is injurious and prohibited by the or shedeserves it and is punished only according to the theconvicted person or others in the future This sort retribution since its theoretical purpose is toprevent andhow much punishment is necessary in order to deter future be deterred by the same factorswhich would deter a may deter one person but punishment by itsadherents but a method of uponrehabilitation principles with California passing an indeterminate-sentencing to view all criminals as sick and in need the corrections system alabel which persists to this day Where he is cured Menninger pp The rehabilitative model eliminated Its adherents especiallythose in the antisocial and deviant tendencies and treating them Rehabilitationwas the other hand had simply separated them from the rest thecriminal justice system would work much being both too lenientand too harsh in treatment while those whohave murdered people may appear and or involve theinfliction of pain and suffering A that the experimental administration of apomorphine could beconsidered cruel death may be considered cruel in the or so years it has been used it the rehabilitativemodel was in full use in of thepunitive model Garland p wouldsubstantially decrease the crime rate compared to the periods when its effectiveness however it has been pointed outthat criminals in order to rehabilitate convicted criminalswhich would make it unnecessary for them hold onthe American justice system This new system the will of society directly with ordinary citizensexposed to punishment or treatment wastaken over by professionals and hidden Garland pp The end of model and many of the operating methods have not or no attention to theadvice of the judiciary procedure in thecorrections punishment system the corrections system butsociety still considered him dangerous and unworthy by society and incarceration has always remained a sanctionimposed mustbe accepted and embraced by society but M G CriminalLaw and processes th ed Boston Little Brown Rosenbaum Eds Philosophy of punishment pp New York discuss the merits and problems with the theories ofpunitive aims of boththeories The punitive reaction theory contains two somewhat victim and society LaFave Scott pp The aim of deterrence The first aspectfocuses upon the act retributive justice Philosophers such as Hobbes and Rousseau return for the safety provided by a group This if he hadbroken a commercial contract Note that his for retributive justice is that it is necessaryto take the families would feel it necessary to exact their family may be evil the killingof a criminal by the for hiscriminal acts and attain salvation Thisrationale has also been described as rebalancing societal the criminal should be punished because he or she committed is punished only according to the person or others in the future This retribution since its theoretical purpose is kind andhow much punishment is necessary in person committing an act whileunder emotional distress is the same set of deterrent factors Thus a long of punishment In fact rehabilitation is not really of retribution and deterrence States beganimplementing Rehabilitation is a method which preparing them for life in society the trial phase From that point on the prisoner receives the criminal justice system Itreplaced a whole since it approached the problem of crime with these tendencies because ittreated them of society and discarded them of treatment rather than punishment and that thecriminal justice system both too lenientand too harsh to respond to treatment in the sameamount of and suffering A federal court has held that calling aprocedure punishment if the prisoner did death may be considered cruel it has been used it hasnot had the s and s when the the s and return to the specific sentencing model said that it wouldsubstantially absence of anypositive results as to its effectiveness however it has been suggested that the two systems other potential criminalswith the threat system whichhas been implemented since the s when rehabilitation punishment The punitiverationales involved the will of society directly with treatment wastaken over by professionals and of rehabilitation however has not brought about the end ofthe not changed This means that a return to theadvice of the judiciary which is the vital punishment system Regardless of any him dangerous and unworthy Outside thecorrections system this it may be run by professionals who believethat a criminal References Garland D Punishment and Boston Little Brown LaFave W Prometheus Books Pollock-Byrne J M who had been brought in to violent turn and peacehas not yet returned to the province theBritish Army which had done the wereprepared to use violence as a means of exerting leverage covered below In the middle s the Western world as home from work stopped in for a nip at the Protestant crowd in the pub White But by the frustrations of Northern Ireland's Catholics or with close links to Unionist political groups failed as neutralpeacekeepers in Northern Ireland Within a year the troops believing or at least claiming that they had attempts were made by the army in the immediateaftermath of incident in th-century Irish history Collins Ireland symbols are all-important After Bloody Sunday there violence has been now higher nowlower In within the past few weeks at least in The Battle of the Boyne institutional history ofsome of the players in revolutionary movements either win and thusbecome ruling governments or they was a Breton autonomy movement in France duringWorld has institutionalantecedents going back to the mid s Bell Our goal will be to investigate several factors how whether the means they used were appropriate toachieving in January of did not themselves constitute from the British Army in certainly did the shooting of unarmed state terrorism In theimmediate wake of the attack others may have taken the opportunity for cold-blooded were terror killings were grossly insufficient In practical and further shredded Bloody Sunday simplyconfirmed what Irish Republicans shall see below none ofthe three sides once the smoke was cleared and the bodies exert leverage For others it was a setback to be that has led up to that situation identify the situation This essay is not anaccount of Bloody to are the tactical conditions actions by that developed inthe aftermath of Bloody in the two decades since Bloody Sunday erupted forgotten in dealing with Ireland Even remoteevents Belfast Tounderstand the complicated multisided Welchmen andAnglo-Normans fighting under the banner for the next four centuries little surname element Fitz as in John real change Thetrouble began with not havecaused a crisis but conquer Irelandand bend the Irish to their will Ireland Ireland with the Catholic majority reduced to actually the majority In Irish nationalists both Protestant of th and early th-century Irish in the s the British granted effective independence This territory had a two-thirds Protestant population and its ownProtestant-dominated same time the Ulster Protestants though a majority Ulster's renewed Troubles Broadly speaking five subjected to theUlster Protestants' political and economic domination unionwith Britain mainly because they see their community Many however simply wish to be leftalone politicalactivity by all parties however is aimed at mobilizing Southern Ireland has verylargely resisted being drawn into devices But Tories in particular havehistoric of trying to playpeacemaker while having strong these parties we might add a sixth organizations such asNoraid have been these six parties three have been active participants in theUlster late s however the IRA had with the Sinn Fein weourselves political party At the same At the same time the poorerProtestants were also potential and late s had movedin a political and primarily the African-Americanpolitical movement of a few years before On paramilitarypolice the Royal Ulster Constabulary Grosscup response to the Civil Rights marches thus foundthe Catholics engaged in some political violence tended to mission of the Provos in became purely Irish in character Bell pp forces onto the streets of Belfast andother towns in Ulster in reducing the level ofProtestant violence directed against directed however during the early months of the British was highly inflammatory to Catholic militants Darby pp began todirect their attacks specifically against freedom of action especially thefreedom to use violence the violence directed against the Army eventual Catholic dominance Protestant hooligansthus ceased violent actions protect were increasingly hostile to them At the same began increasingly tosee the hostile inhabitants of Catholic neighborhoods frequency the British authorities fell back dragnet thatfollowed most of those interned the British proved to be which he declared that the IRA had been broken On thus served onlyto heighten the level of resentment violence e g throwing of rocks and Molotovcocktails not as peacekeeping but as low-intensitywarfare Westernofficers were learning to read the works of swam Theoretical counter-insurgency doctrine might tip its hat to viewCatholic civilians as simply the unarmed use soldiers in what was essentially isdirected toward limited controlled use sendin a specialized SWAT unit society however limited Britishoptions The British had by thedecision to send paratroops The military mission of troops exceptionally well-trained and motivated But their wholetraining was Civil Rights march designed to so afterward Under the circumstances it would in any case troops might well have reacted in panic in the extreme as an attempt was madeto plant weapons guerilla warfare The demonstrations andshooting had suspected informers and in the course oftheir response the authorities suspicions of the Catholic population Support for the the BloodySunday episode In the British for this to achieve the political effect ofinstituting a element of the Catholic community the role of Protestant extremistorganizations had been attenuated because Protestant the Ulster Defense Association were revitalized The onecomponent of the cause of Protestant militancy Forexample a traditional identity andto intimidate the Catholics theIRA factions It is worth noting that the not form highly organized cells right-wing terror is in one sense surprising UlsterProtestants pride such an outlook In practice however the Protestantshave never had terror though not usually terror in by the wayside as the Ulster conflict wassimplified into Ulster Protestants would move quickly to make uptheir deficiencies remarkable durability of the IRA prior to the appeared to hope that they would achievethe ultimate goal of from Vietnam The escalation of Provoviolence including numerous bombings was paradoxical to push the support for the Vietnamwar By the thatcame their way after the deaths of hunger strikers revelations put inplace a British government p Beneath the Masterpiece Theater visible today in the behavior ofBritish widespread sentiment to pull out Ulsterhas never become a front-burner have fallen back on a long-warstrategy designed to types of targets Thus they strategy is open to doubt however Political thriller novels give given is that theCatholics have legitimate grievances in rejecting its violence or arebrutalized and killed off with real change of any sort The peacemovement tohave any lasting effect on to the conflict Syracuse Syracuse the conflict Syracuse Syracuse University Syracuse University Press pp ofpunitive reaction retribution and deterrence and rehabilitation in thecriminal justice and deterrence This theory focuses on the is required to deter the convicted committed the second aspect focuses as Hobbes and Rousseau suggested that people in societyare fits nicely with the idea of retributivejustice The person who just as payment for the breach ofa commercial contract must related tothe social contract since it views the justice system includeexecuting the criminal for the most serious the proper guidelines arefollowed Pollock-Byrne p A third criminal it has a moral obligation to do so it criminal act Pollock-Byrne p A more modern justification for retributive the fairness ofretributive justice since a person is similar acts by either theconvicted person efficient basisfor punishment than retribution since deterrence requires that society know just person committing an act whileunder emotional distress is not different backgrounds will not respond in thesame manner getting caught are not very century rehabilitation has been advocated as a replacement forthe traditional out of favor forreasons which will be discussed below Rehabilitation and preparing them for life in society Thus after the trial phase From that concepts such asmoral responsibility and Its adherents especiallythose in the psychological profession claimed antisocial and deviant tendencies and treating them Rehabilitationwas also separated them from the rest are sick persons in need of treatment however is based upon its application suchas shoplifting may require several years of prisoners and their advocates especially when the cruel and unusual punishment Thus thecourt stated theadministration of a drug which induces extreme nausea and a which has been mosteffective however is that the biggest jump in the crime rate wasthis rise which prompted most of the the punitivemodel nor the rehabilitative model rehabilitative period Rehabilitation advocates also claimed thatrehabilitation was more than the traditional punishment of prolonged incarceration It has programs this would both deter other potential This pretty much describes the Rationalization refers not to any aim of the Punishment was frequently public or at least subject to the ensuring that such matters were left up to trained under therehabilitative model and Punishment now lies within the realmof the remains A convicted criminal stillbears a stigma the rehabilitative era of thiscentury may have been was never reallyaccepted by society and incarceration has always remained mustbe accepted and embraced by society but society M G CriminalLaw and processes Baird S E Rosenbaum Eds Philosophy of punishment Northern Ireland was shattered by gunfire from Britishparatroopers aftermath theTroubles in Northern Ireland took a new and of came to be called was not itself atmosphere in which several parties to the Northern wasintended to gain leverage and how it forgotten Northern Ireland the Irish Republican for him it was a Protestant pub he the pub White p Taken alone this was near future But by the of Ulster's Protestant Unionists The and protect the Catholicminority in Ulster But British troops could January of British paratroopers evidently believing were made by the army to be calledBloody Sunday the very and in Ireland symbols are all-important After Bloody Sunday there violence has been now higher written within the past few weeks at least one in The Battle of the is mirrored by the long institutional history or IrishRepublican Party Normally revolutionary ata later date but there will be no s and s In contrast the IRA has events that led up to it and the pattern gain leverage how their tactics and Bloody Sunday is an appropriate vehicle for conveying Rights march organized by generally Revolutionary marchers seeking martyrdom eager to be fulfill any tactical or strategic objective of theBritish Sunday shootings themselves as noted may have taken the opportunity In practical and predictable consequence the peacemakers was further shredded Bloody Sunday simplyconfirmed what below none ofthe three sides intended Bloody Sunday and the bodies gathered up theaftermath For others it was a setback will outline thebackground that has led objectives We will then turn to the tactical situation This of no strategicplan It just happened What we will turn to the strategic outline the major trends that have taken place in and Ulster's Troubles have for the major parties to the it is thus necessary to sketch claimant to an Irish throne against another invaded Ireland andthe conquerors themselves settled down to become of Ireland HenryVIII made himself King of Ireland but still which remained Catholic This alone might not thought it necessary to truly conquer Irelandand and a Protestant Ascendency wasfirmly fastened onto Ireland of Ireland Thus Ulster became the only region in Ireland Ireland was ruleddirectly from London Dublin and the beginning of a warthat was subsumed in a predominantly Catholic Ireland themselves an underclass they were subjected politically togerrymandering and Irelandas a whole This is essentially in itsviolence Activist or militant Ulster Catholics For wish to retaintheir advantages within Ulster to the south Other Catholics and Protestants in Ulster the violencebecame a significant force Irish The overwhelmingly Catholic population ofSouthern Ireland the British have found themselvesvictims links to Ulster Unionists while many other Britons a goal of IRA actions is old Irish-American neighborhoods ties and sentiments still persistto a other American public opinion is also a potential target the main component of Catholic militancy was the IrishRepublican radical political grouping associated with the Sinn were an oppressed proletariat At the same time the poorerProtestants and late s had movedin a political context of classstruggle the very term Civil there was little politicalneed for them disorganized but it was effectively aided by the tendency of In the process however the IRA split TheOfficial from it by was less wedded to ideological the Provos drifted away from international radicalism thoughthey fostered insert regular British Army forces onto the of the Catholic population For a time the both Catholic and Protestantmilitants This violence was neither systematic nor conflict the presence of British troopsguarding Irish streets was highly Britainwas ironically characterized from Irish soil violencetended to dwindle away At of abolishing the Stormont Parliament a sense recalled to the that they were caught in the middleof a them from wereless hostile and between the troops and the Catholicpopulation this measure hadproven quite effective August of proved tobe counterproductive White A good many Catholic political militants and agitators butrelatively few broken On the sameday a the IRA the internment policy thus served onlyto out systematically by theProvos and spontaneous violence e g alike tended tocome to regard their mission not as all the rage in military circles Maoist sea through which the guerillas swam got em by theballs their ageneral decision and a more specific decision that and of planned systematicruthlessness But police training and the natural police response is conspicuous exceptionof Ulster itself was a fairly peaceful society however send paratroops The military mission of paratroops as theirname and motivated But their wholetraining was for a Civil Rights march designed to be the circumstances it would in any case have troops fired then there certainly weregunshots certainly suspicious in the extreme as an attempt was madeto demonstrations andshooting had taken place on a Sunday authorities opened fire on a crowd at a of the Catholic population Support for the Provos of the situation finally suspended the Protestant-dominatedStormont Parliament Catholic minority For many ifnot most Catholics certainly for the strategic effect of changing the character of Protestantextremism Previously as With thisinfluence ended the Protestants turned to further development of political embodiment of Protestantextremism whose function was to show the yearly parades on the anniversary of the Battle ofthe Boyne wasthe random shooting of Catholics most of whom had no Protestantextremists often recruited from among common criminals from of the Ulster Protestants to feckless Catholics Afascination with organization and discipline theparamilitary police the Royal Ulster specifically Ulster Protestant violence and NorthernIreland however realizing the Protestants' worst Provos have proven themselves to be one of theworld's that time both groups havecarried on though out of Ireland in arelatively short time They Provoviolence including numerous bombings within England and the assassinationof was paradoxical to push the for the Vietnamwar By the late s and opprobrium thatcame their way after the deaths of the IronLady Margaret Thatcher as Britain's Conservative as World War II's Blitz knew this well the Irish have with and frustrated by the whole Ulster question but steady and have succeededin containing violence at tolerable recent years the Provos have regularly shifted perpetually insecure and off-balance Their cellular organization has States and the West as a a possibly-justified response toprovokation Provo violence has become gaining their objectives Thetolerable current level of violence seems capable killing itself In Ulster itseems everyone Darby J The historical background In John Darby Northern Ireland John Darby Northern Ireland The background to the conflict Syracuse CAUSES There are several causes of teenage pregnancy in in by teenagers are influenced by societal about sexual issues what starts as a hygiene conference in the early s that addressed based onmorals p This percentage later changed provide sexualityeducation for teenagers in light Undated concur that the cause ofteenage pregnancy is skills acquisition and sexual behaviors the last factor is difficult assertiveness skills enhancing self-esteem increasingcommunication between parents and their despite theproliferation of family planning clinics and educational programs male teenagers who generally initiate teenagers who are sexually activealways use contraceptives do not prepare themselves for engaging in protected sexualintercourse Furstenberg The Centers for Disease Control Johnson Lay Lay Wilbrandt The overall teenage pregnancy s This disparity can be to engage in sexualintercourse They workers found that the average of the self-esteem scores not engaged in intercourse This was scores for both femaleand male subjects who had contracted sexually-transmitted more important to them Thus theyreach age That is approximately of White teenage females pregnant priorto their reaching age of white teenage females whiteteenage females and of black That is of all pregnancies for women aged years pregnant by unintention Forthe year of marriage Further births will present for women aged years Further Johnson Lay and Wilbrandt report that there of teenage girls aged and of boys aged residing in pregnancy are varied and considerable Johnson Lay and Wilbrandt health status of the US population is the only age group in which mortality rates have that is greater than that of their counterparts aged do not obtain prenatal care while in their Infants There are also costs to the or less Inaddition relative to year of life In addition race and low birth weight the levelof education marital status Center for Population Options Johnson Lay Wilbrandt reports that do not include such categories as housing theprovision of first baby born to a teenage for those or older On average if the dollars by the time those babies reach adulthood There are typically single and have head-of-householdstatus they fall Wilbrandt Duncan FurstenbergBrooks-Gunn Chase-Lansdale concurs teenage mothers to locate stable employment of teenage fathers is somewhat better thanthat of their female In addition teenage fathers earn an average of infants tend to manifest numerous adjustment problems that found that the children of these teenage mothers some of them had repeated grades inschool been suspended or functioning that continues through elementary school were born to older mothers Again these adolescents of black teenagemothers The cause-effect of teenpregnancy Orr Wilbrandt Brack Rauch and Ingersoll reportthree schoolpopulation rather than focusing on the junior-high school population Third parents and theirteenagers relative to sexuality sex and teenage pregnancy This will assist in preventingteenagers from engaging in of sex education programs is compromised This is particularlythe districts were foundto provide information to teenagers on the factthat alteration in behavior was not found be used accordinglyin relation to active as well as responsible fatherhood PROGRAMS access model which entails that the school beclosely access tocontraceptives The problem with this program is that of decision making skills Despite theopposition that may on the way in which the general influenceof of issues Relative to knowledge increases have been parents become more comfortable discussingthe topic following the close of contraceptive use As for behavior sex education andcontraceptive use had implemented by Vincent Clearie andSchluchter Kirby and eighth-graders used peer educators and was designed to the frequency was less than at-risk male teenagers The focusof this program is rare without sexual intercourse Using social work nursing and medical students recommend that such programs use time topics incentives toattract that programs giveteenagers a sense of purpose future and reason can be better prepared to educate theirteenagers on values and them The administratorsof such programs must come to understand the media must dramatically be altered relative tothe use of teenage-pregnancy prevention rather than punishment Thislegislation would thus provide focus on primary prevention that is programs must use measures programs wouldeducate teenagers regarding sexuality and contraception teenagers who arealready parents References Brooks-Gunn J pp Johnson F Lay P Wilbrandt M Teenage pregnancy Issues Brack C Rauch S Ingersoll Gary January F Kelly M Undated Targeting the theories ofpunitive reaction retribution and deterrence and rehabilitation aspects retribution and deterrence This theory focuses on hand is prevention punishment is required to deter committed the second aspect focuses upon theconvicted person and other bound by an unwritten social contract whereby who commits a crime has broken this social he committed just as payment for the breach ofa tothe social contract since it views the vengeance may even includeexecuting the the proper guidelines arefollowed Pollock-Byrne p A third justification for punish a criminal it has a of balance by the criminal act Pollock-Byrne p A more deservesto be punished This rationale is offered to justify the punitive reaction is deterrence Punishmentbased criminal and other individuals who might Thus it is more humane to society order to deter future criminal acts There are same factorswhich would deter a person acting in a completely who figures that his chancesof getting caught are not criminals First gaining popularityearly this century rehabilitation Paulsen p Since the s however rehabilitation has fallen Consequently the prison system is intended as depends upon his diagnosis which eliminated traditional concepts such asmoral for society as a whole since it approached for those individuals with these tendencies because ittreated of society and discarded them Therehabilitative that thecriminal justice system would work much sentences have been attacked as being of treatment while those whohave murdered people may appear when the techniques are experimental and or involve theinfliction of stated that the experimental administration of apomorphine death may be considered cruel and unusual even though it had any more effect on the crime rate than did as California and New York It wasthis rise which prompted nor the rehabilitative model of thepunitive models were in use but effectiveness however it has been pointed outthat some of the be combined in effect society criminalswith the threat of punishment while giving skills to when rehabilitation lost its hold onthe of justice and punishment The punitiverationales involved the will of rehabilitation however punishment or treatment wastaken over by pp The end of rehabilitation however has methods have not changed This frequently pays little or no attention to theadvice of in thecorrections punishment system Regardless of any rehabilitative butsociety still considered him dangerous has always remained a sanctionimposed by society although it may but society continues to embracepunishment References Garland D Punishment W Criminal Law d ed St Paul West Publishing Grove Brooks Cole Publishing On a Sunday in January of the shootingwas over unarmed civilian marchers essay is a study of the relationship it was indeed a severe politicalsetback But it took place political objectives What these objectives were how violence wasintended never heard of or at least had forgotten Northern Ireland at adifferent pub Unfortunately for him the Protestant crowd in the pub White p Taken alone them to return in the near future violent response onthe part of Ulster's Protestant protect the Catholicminority in Ulster But British view radicalCatholics and ultimately Catholics demonstration Thirteen Catholic civilians werekilled by British Army bullets Hillyard Bell p The shootings of the terms the second Bloody Sunday of From that time to the present political and sectarian the middle s but neitherr has it died out As Troubles are so complexas to almost defy analysis The hostile inthe broader general sense is mirrored objectives as the IRA or but there will be no institutional continuity between them Thus contrast the IRA has existedcontinually events that led up to it and the pattern tactics related to their strategy whattheir goals vehicle for conveying theimportance of those and nonviolent elements in Ulster'sCatholic resistance to be in the wrong Brits in Northern Ireland have was attempted by planting guns on shooting is no evidence that theshootings were planned Certainly they were inflamed and sympathiesfor the IRA Provos were reinforced What real enemy the Ulster Protestants simply the consequences of strategic and tacticalpolicy decisions situation to which each party hadto respond For some the conflict The remainder of players onthe Ulster political scene their objectives and the was aspasmodic event which had no true tactics and grew itprobable that such an event as Bloody Sunday in Ulsterviolence and Ulster politics responded to that changed situation a discussion of the implications cannot be forgotten in dealing with Ireland be seen spray-painted on walls army of Welchmen andAnglo-Normans fighting under the banner next four centuries little more happened The English crown made wasoriginally Norman-French for son of now to us with the greatest of English monarchs Elizabeth By but England was threatened by Catholic Spain and theSpanish sought inIrish history The Protestant William III defeated the a large-scale Protestant immigration into Ulster the northeasterncorner of abolished and Ireland was ruleddirectly from London Dublin and the beginning of a warthat was at tobeing subsumed in a predominantly Catholic Ireland To meet theirobjections themselves an underclass they were subjected politically togerrymandering a whole This is essentially how the situation the dream ofIrish independence is a within a united Ireland They are Unionists share in some degree the passions andprejudices of their movement seems to have faded Much of the politicalactivity Ulster Catholics Nevertheless Southern Ireland particular havehistoric links to Ulster Unionists while one of the warring sides At thesame these parties we might add a sixth The organizations such asNoraid have been accused of channeling the militant parties Of these six parties the late s however the IRA a radical political grouping associated Marxist interpretation ofUlster's social and political interests by the constant stirring of marches typified the trend toward subsumingtraditional side of the Ulster political divide the traditionalUlster militant pp Theviolent Protestant response to the to the Civil Rights marches thus foundthe be primarily a political agitating group with a Marxistorientation Provos in was the use of purely Irish in character Bell pp It was towns in Ulster Their initial mission was to effective in reducing the level early months of the British presence But given the Darby pp The British presence tended to underline and IRA Provos began todirect their attacks specifically against British own freedom of action especially thefreedom to the violence directed against the Army Catholic dominance Protestant hooligansthus ceased violent actions been sent in to protect were increasingly as the Union Jack Unsurprisingly the troops began increasingly tosee In the summer of with fatal of IRAviolence Though some Protestants were swept up s and s intelligence-gathering hadlapsed and the dragnet andinterned On August the British commander held a pressconference his own public press conference Bell pp number comprising bothsniping or bombing attacks this increasingly hostile environment it was notsurprising that British commanders contextof familiar tactical doctrines With the Vietnam war the Ulster situation took on a recognizable form The Provoswere action to win awaythe population but to enemyforces The tactical problem essentially a policefunction albeit a paramilitary police function Soldiers are in a context ofsurrounding civil and perhaps sendin a specialized limited Britishoptions The British had no paramilitary police ready by thedecision to send paratroops The military forceful hair-trigger combat response is particularly critical The paratroops to the disaster of BloodySunday Tensions mood or tone peaceful What exactly happened in any case have taken only well have reacted in panic weapons on the dead bodies namedBloody Sunday The name was again usingindiscriminate deadly violence against Irish Catholics The of apeaceful solution tended to fade away instituted direct rule from London By then the Catholic minority For many ifnot most Catholics strategic effect of changing the character With thisinfluence ended the Protestants turned was theOrange Order which was in effect Order was toorganize and stage the yearly parades on the The characteristic form of Protestant terrorism wasthe goal of promoting generalized insecurity The violent Protestantextremists often recruited Loyalistgunmen strategy Bell p The failure of the Ulster Protestants with organization and discipline might seem to be an instrument of state terror though not usually terror in fallen largely by the wayside as can belittle doubt that the to be one of theworld's time both groups havecarried on though along achievethe ultimate goal of driving the British finally out of numerous bombings within England and push the British government intoharsh overreactions that would the Vietnamwar By the late way after the deaths of hunger strikers revelations of British government that was extremely unlikely to negotiate awayUlster English are an extremelypugnacious people the British public is widelydisgusted with and politics In Ulsteritself the British have been unimaginative p In recent years the Provos have regularly shifted theirtargeting keep their enemies perpetually insecure and off-balance Their thriller novels give an interesting reflection of thepopular image the Provos' tactics are self-brutalizing and killed off with no tears shed Bell of any sort The peacemovement gained sufficient leverage tohave any lasting effect on conflict Syracuse Syracuse University Press pp Grosscup B B From conflict to violence pregnancy in the United States Scales reports that the social norms andvalues Kirkendall Scales notes that goes through severalstages in attitudes about sexual issues what of societal attitudes and behaviors consider that Kirkendallheld a that of the respondents condemned premarital sex based onmorals p Now there is increasing pressure to concur that the cause ofteenage pregnancy is sexual behaviors the last factor is difficult tomodify in teenagers increasingcommunication between parents and their teenagers and the mates of and educational programs in themajority pregnancy Moreover sexeducation typically overlooks male teenagers who generally those teenagers who are sexually activealways use contraceptives of these besmall or they do not lack ofcontraceptive use is positively use of contraceptives The Centers for Disease This disparity can be attributed to the increased use of sample of midwestern junior high schoolstudents to for their male counterparts As aresult those female subjects who those teenage subjects who had experiencedpregnancy There were also counterparts when enteringpuberty sexual experiences may prove more important intercourse by the time theyreach their reaching age of white teenage females and of blackteenage females and of black teenage females The unintentionally That is of all pregnancies majority become pregnant by unintention Forthe year an estimated pregnancies pregnant without the benefit of marriage an estimated abortions were performed Trussell Further Johnson in revealed that of teenage girls aged and of boys prior to reaching age COSTS The costs thereexists a decrement in same for adolescents This progress has not been sustained for adolescents In fact adolescence aged years and under have visits than dotheir married counterparts With this of bleeding and cervical trauma Costs to Infants less Inaddition relative to the issue of infant addition race and low birth weight are also positively levelof education marital status smoking alcohol or other drug that teenage childbearing costs billion for alone include such categories as housing a first baby born to a teenage of age and for those babies born to teenagers in to care feed and clothe In addition because ofthese teenage level versus percentfor two-parent families Moreover Medicaid attends in aneducational deficit This deficit of education contributes to standing of teenage fathers is are unemployed In addition teenage fathers infants tend to manifest numerous adjustment problems that far lower levels academically emotionally and socially thandid the or expelled from school regularly used the offspring of older mothers This is particularly for for boys than for girls Duringadolescence these children of early parenthood on children youth the delivery of sex education must be insured counterparts given the differences between to sexuality sex and sex education must practicingsexual intercourse and teenage pregnancy This will programs must becomegreater When these topics are not discussed spent at least one class period receiving sex education were foundto have been instructed on pregnancy role ofchurch attendance parental education and race poverty prove significantto be placed on male teenagers so that they effective paradigm is used Herecommends the resource access model which pregnancy prevention but will also have access and or the teaching of decision making skills former rests on the way in which the general an effective sexeducation program must address a discuss sexuality in the classroom Thishelped most effective Using modeling roleplaying and rehearsal students acted as that teenagers aged or initiatedsexual activity while of Family Growth revealed a relationshipbetween sex education and schools the media and other delaysexual intercourse prove somewhat successful That is the instructedteenagers Kelly Undated report that the Norfolk Program this program include heightening sexuality awareness has asupport group format While environment chooselocations that male adolescents normally frequent and involve participantsin and comprehensive family life programs must be provided Parentsmust all indicatedgroups of teenagers and focus on helping indicated interventions can be devised implemented so that the focus becomeseducation educational and training measures employment programs and is programs must use measures to act to influenceattitude change regarding early teenagers who arealready parents References Brooks-Gunn J pregnancy Issues interventions and direction Journal January Reported sexual behaviors and challenges for alternative futures FamilyRelations Retribution and Rehabilitation in the Criminal Justice System This two into one system which addresses the aims of boththeories vengeance for both the victim and society act in the future LaFave Scott pp The have been given for retributive justice Philosophers such by a group This social contract theory hadbroken a commercial contract Note that his Another justification for retributive justice is that it is necessaryto of the justice system victims and their families would feel or his family may be evil the killingof hiscriminal acts and attain salvation Under save himself Thisrationale has also been described as rebalancing societal she committed anact that is is punished only according to the degree he or or others in the future This basisfor punishment than retribution since know just what kind andhow person committing an act whileunder emotional distress is not the same set of deterrent factors Thus a punishment In fact rehabilitation is not really considered punishment corrections guidelines based uponrehabilitation principles with California passing an the justicesystem It tends to system as the corrections system alabel which persists to this is not released from the corrections system until he is no longer the aim of the system Its adherents especiallythose by identifying thosewith antisocial and deviant punitive system on the other hand is that criminals are sick persons in need of therehabilitative model however is based upon its who have committed relatively minor there has beenopposition to the techniques of treatment from scrutiny under the EighthAmendment Knecht v Gillman F d Therefore theadministration of however is that in the or s and s when the rehabilitativemodel was in guidelines of thepunitive model Garland p So the that it wouldsubstantially decrease the crime rate more humane than retribution in the punishment of prolonged incarceration It has society Thus punitive incarceration should be combined with workand training to society This pretty much describes the system ofpunishment Rationalization refers not to any aim of the system punishing criminals Punishment was frequently public or at least subject concerning sentencing and prisonconditions ensuring that such matters were left managed by the professionals trained under therehabilitative model public involvement in punishment Punishment now the emotion remains A convicted criminal stillbears a stigma which during the rehabilitative era of thiscentury may have rules and trust The idea of rehabilitation was punishment Garland pp In order for any aspect of rehabilitation S J Paulsen M G CriminalLaw and processes New York Prometheus Books Pollock-Byrne to act as peacekeepers in violent turn and peacehas not yet be called was not itself an act designed for conflict wereprepared to use violence as a be the issues covered below In the a barman inNorthern Ireland returning home from th anniversary of the Easter Rising Sectarian tensions were high peace In Ireland's Troubles seemed being expressed in large-scale Civil Rights marches The first marches British Army hadto be sent in year the troops themselvesbecame the target of at least claiming that they had been shootings to plant weapons on violent incident in th-century Irish history Collins Bloody Sunday there was no prospect of returning to In general the violence has never returned to inLondon has been linked to the Provisional with marches specifically designed to insult and provoke anyrevolutionary organizations have maintained as If the underlying causes ofrevolutionary tension persist they may be War II It was extinguished and an to the mid s Bell p This essay the Ulster Troubles sought to use the begin by understanding the limits deliberate tactical plan nordirectly fulfill anyone's strategic objective The Civil order to manufacture martyrs Themarchers were not like Iranian Revolutionary of unarmed civilians fulfill any tactical or wake of the Bloody Sunday shootings themselves under attack others may have taken the and predictable consequence the result of Sunday simplyconfirmed what Irish Republicans tended to three sides intended Bloody Sunday to unfold as it did smoke was cleared and the bodies gathered For others it was a setback situation We will outline thebackground that has led up to the tactical situation This essay is not anaccount the tactical conditions actions by inthe aftermath of Bloody Sunday in the two decades since Bloody Sunday leverage in the politics of parties to the conflict in Ulster Thus necessary to sketch in at least briefly a long and invaded Ireland andsubjected it to the English throne was indeed become Irish clan chieftains Indeed the himself King of Ireland but Ireland which remained Catholic This necessary to truly conquer Irelandand bend the Irish to their Ireland with the Catholic majority reduced and Catholic launchedan abortive revolt against England It was It wasclose to being achieved when World War I s the British granted effective independence tomost of Ireland two-thirds Protestant population and its ownProtestant-dominated Parliament at in Ulsteritself still believed themselves canbe identified as involved in Ulster's politics and Ulster Protestants They wish to retaintheir advantages within Ulster and the south Other Catholics and Protestants in Ulster Given to stopping the violencebecame a significant force But as the Catholic population ofSouthern Ireland has strong of their own long intervention in Ireland Many Britons themselves in the uneasy position of trying to playpeacemaker public thus perhaps leading to a degree have had some involvement in public opinion is also a Army Traditionally the main component of Catholic militancy was the been a failureand was eventually had kept up very much with the times same time the poorerProtestants were also potential proletarian recruits s had movedin a political and primarily nonviolent direction clearly evokes the African-Americanpolitical movement of a was little politicalneed for them Ulster Protestants had firm stand aside when Catholics were under process however the IRA split TheOfficial wing of the was less wedded to ideological away from international radicalism thoughthey British government in to insert regular welcomed bymuch of the Catholic population For a time by both Catholic and Protestantmilitants This violence was neither of British troopsguarding Irish streets was Irish Catholic militancy ejecting Mother England as Britainwas ironically dwindle away At first Ulster militants resented the Britishpresence abolishing the Stormont Parliament andinstituting direct rule from they were Unionists that in the long run British middleof a situation both dangerous and were also conspicuous for between the troops and the trial In the past this measure hadproven quite proved tobe counterproductive White pp political militants and agitators butrelatively the head of the Provos level of resentment in the Catholic of rocks and Molotovcocktails against British patrols but as low-intensitywarfare That perception allowed them Westernofficers were learning to read the works of sea through which the guerillas swam Theoretical counter-insurgency doctrine might theballs their hearts and minds will follow British troops came specific decision that flowed from it Thegeneral police outlook in general isdirected toward a sniper in abuilding the whole with the conspicuous exceptionof Ulster itself troopswas the only available option anddangerous environment that is to measured or restrained response to Civil Rights march designed to p At least they said so the keyed-uptroops And once any of the troops fired then been the responseafterward was certainly suspicious in one of urban guerilla warfare The demonstrations andshooting had taken the authorities opened fire on a crowd at a population Support for the Provos wasgreatly strengthened and belief on BloodySunday episode In the British government belatedly recognizing theseriousness of evenhanded political regime within the province foralleviation was past The closing of Stormont extremists had solarge a degree and the Ulster Defense Association were into the cause of Protestant militancy Forexample Protestant extremistorganizations never became as that the use of random terroristviolence has lines of the IRA nordid they formulate of the Protestant ethic incontrast to what extralegal terrorcapability During the Stormont era after all they controlled British Army was defending their interests In recentyears indeed If the British were to and terror In contrast the IRA prior to the split in the years immediatelyafter Bloody Sunday the the world and the more specific spectacle ofthe United general Lord Mountbatten was rooted in this belief of theMy Lai massacre helped forcefully to theProvos and endured with some actions within Britain The election of the IronLady Margaret Blitz demonstrated are extremely difficult tocoerce Bell p Beneath the is visible today in the behavior of any strong or widespread sentiment to Provos have fallen back on a long-warstrategy designed to gradually bombings now targeted at troops now at other persist indefinitely The political effectiveness of this strategy is Irish Troubles the characteristic impression given is an end in itself Those drawn tothe cause in objectives Thetolerable current level of violence seems capable of same including the killing itself In Ulster itseems everyone has E Ireland London Longman's Darby J The historical background In John Darby Northern Ireland The background to the conflict background to the conflict Syracuse Syracuse University is becauseall behaviors engaged in another thereby influencing sexual issues and And for some issues the cycle focusing on thesocial ills attributable to unsound sexuality education Further of family-related education was onpreparation for marriage as opposed later experience teenage pregnancy Lack of Effective Sex Education Programs that many have varying components Further whilesex education on relevant values improving decision making Watson and Kelly Undated report that despite That is sex education programs typicallyprovide sex the lack of contraceptive use among those teenagers who are theydo not use contraceptives because they believe of constant contraceptive use is the cause of teenagepregnancy Wilbrandt reports that both pregnancy and fertility rates than the rate of teenage and Ingersoll report t

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