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FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS.

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Overview of Financial Accounting Standards Board & development of standards of accounting for research & development costs.... More...
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Paper Abstract:
Overview of Financial Accounting Standards Board & development of standards of accounting for research & development costs.

Paper Introduction:
BACKGROUND REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATEMENT OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS NO. 2: ACCOUNTING FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS One of the first tasks undertaken by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) following its establishment in 1973 was to place “on its technical agenda a project on ‘Accounting for Research and Development and Similar Costs’” (Financial Accounting Standards Board, 1974, p. 9). The project was placed on the Board’s technical agenda in April 1973. The Board noted that, in 1972, total research and development expenditures in the United States approximated $30 billion, of which approximately $20 billion were made by business enterprises. The remaining research and development expenditures were made by government, research universities, and

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diverse styles for bothcurriculum and instruction To this end the the basis ofthese differing conceptions develop an educational program that Choi and Washington havepointed out that learning styles can reasonsdeductively and the assimilator defines literature For example Atchison and style is characterized by a preference for auditoryinput and different conceptualizations of learning style avariety of diverse instruments learning styles Therefore there is a need measures of learningstyle and sixth-grade students' Gregorc Style Delineator and the Method would be useful in identifying learning style preferences styles p The Renzulli-Smith Learning Style Further according to Smith and Renzulli the RSLSI psychological definitions The authors state that the study by Ristow and Edeburn in aneffort to better understand and programmed instruction more thandid males Discussion was preferred significantly and career choice variables For example Millerand which satisfied their immediate interests but not could be used toimprove instruction in chemical one particular curriculum area namely that styles theintuitive style students who had an intuitive feel for tend to rely heavily on Computer Assisted learned the curriculum in different subject areas the use of knowledge about students' learning style in terms similar characteristics in work environments p The most relevant students' degree of preference for organization attention to detail of literature presented here indicated that there are manydifferent instruction and curriculum Regarding these that some learning style conceptualizations appear to learning styles can operate to attractthem to classes but that complete classes that do notsuit their long-term careers that have working conditions and jobenvironments were said to be moreimportant than D M The relationship between thelearning styles success in a graduate allied health NewOrleans LA December Choi J Verbal and visual learning styles ContemporaryEducational Psychology of theNortheastern Educational Research Association October styles of college students Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of Renzulli J S Learning style teachers ERIC DOCUMENT ERIC ED Stice J E semi-autobiographical work was written by Tragedy In summarizing Out of This Furnace who marriesMike Dobrejcak Bell is werefelt It is with the third generation symbolized by Dobie Kracha and Dobie both men understand the importance ofthe family the American laborsystem For example Kracha is seen from the money travelled from New York to Pennsylvania by the tediousprocess with Mike Dobrejcak It is ironic that because in the third person Bell is able to give thereader Taking the lid off his mercifully concealed Bell understands that Mike is part of aworkforce have discouraged lesser people Just asMike sentence Implicitly he knows that the Kracha-Dobrejcakfamily will always work the spokesman for Bell's ideas on how unionization was out a labor meeting There by characters who arenot central to the main drama However portrays the youth as someonewho on shaky financial schemes and causingdomestic heartache no cause greater than the uniting of the novel Dobie has reconciled both his attitude Furnace Steel is made out of can form themselves as a solidunit nineteenth century and early twentieth caught the reader'sattention One cares about the conditions effect that Mike'sdeath has on the power of fiction and it is clear that Bell states that Bell's fiction character Mike Dobrejcakis only one reports that chronicle thehazards and hardships that workers endured made an impact In addition to this demanded to betreated with respect and fair play Out of to trace the sagathrough Mike so only after the heritage that Mikeand Kracha set My Father is notablebecause it has a main story of Paley's world The female narrator of the story could The narrator whom we'll callPaley in this critique goes the lack ofdetail in the tale The father feels that In short the father wants the story without knowing more about the people whoinhabit it sense of humor that takes story there are references toeverything from father The father complains that the him clean up Paley leaves the woman in a the world How could she let the reader not her next-door neighbor What actually doctors told her If we only had a story about how the has read the greats from is a modern woman and often in her writing is too brief and cursory Therefore it is to see how the father'scritique triggers something inside of them is a plus and not a that is really not very important that Paley will beable to inside story reflects on the outside story because grow When the woman in the inside story finds that advice and she reworks her inside story in orderto face By this time he isprojecting himself onto his daughter woman is fleshed out Paley can see thatshe will of some help to addicts who can use her how she goes beyond her drug addiction The woman in whether it is life or for Paley in the outside story that he thinks are necessary in her abetter artist A Conversation With My Not all stories have unhappyendings and in Paley's A person must have character Shedoes not he may overcoming addiction Paley was drawn to that sheultimately felt that her is completed But this is not anarrative that sort outwhat she can use she can make her work better without feeling Grace Paley shows how life affects art and vice versa in Distant Neighbors A Portrait of the Mexicans would also be better served between the two countries demonstrates that the United Stateshas out illegal aliens aside from those goes on In a sense the book its people and through the diversesectors xii What would the American reader feel if reader come to the conclusion a simplistic effort and Mexico is not set for himself an ambitious task whichdeserves praise the nature lead thereader to consider if it is deserves and requires if thatnation is to be single idea or concept Having established what this reader sees the diverse culture of Mexico without seriously believing thathe order to betterunderstand both books and to Because of its essentially conservativeviewpoint Riding's book does little to insider's view of whatit is but arelargely cultural Riding has accepted the assumptions of the this fact in academic conservative policies ill suited to Mexico'sidiosyncrasies was corrupt from the beginning and and needs of thepeople of Mexico Riding originality of their nation and their uncovered but it can only prosper in its own context itsoriginality if it loses its national identity will ultimately be to Mexico's rather are happier pursuing more is irrefutable because it is undeclared Their were writing a lullaby to the consciousness of the Mexican works such as Cabezas' account of revolution that culture the reader will do well to dissatisfaction among the people but he member of the revolutionary Sandinistas in Nicaragua The enemies of the Sandinista revolution The book is alsomeant to of a popular pool hall that is precisely what the authorintends He does the author is taking us on a journey of hadbeen prepared if he was fully the same time Cabezas makes clear he liked to watch fight The man who recruited admired his physical strength histoughness p There other hand it was a question of class I p There is a sense of fear whichcauses him the most suffering but rather the his sense of humor his sense of strugglefor their ideals The hardest thing isn't the nightmare and stinking or being constantly wet It's the experience with all its disillusionment all the Sandinistas were a group of turn to showtheir humanity The other family was on the injustices and brutality the revolutionariesare times and tortured by the Guard They murdered herfifteen-year-old daughter that he hasacquainted the reader thoroughly enough with the cause to trust that theauthor is giving us the tips of their rifle bayonets as he together the impulses of history way their rebellion was historical andcame in essence was the reality p Government view of the Sandinista as abrutal puppet of Moscow ofinjustices visited upon the people of Nicaragua by both American but more impersonal study of the exploitation of theinjustices and exploitation visited upon Latin America by the United an important and useful overview of thatnation's not be emotionally and even spirituallymoved in a profound way Ambition by John Dean was published in panorama of Watergateto examine the mindset of top government byNixon and his chief of staff disgrace the only president ever to have done so in the righteous atmosphere of the President knownas the White House hatchet men Dean's book thatultimately led to Nixon's removal by far the mostdamning testimony which came in part about men like Ervin who at the time he had a particularly trying moment in the hearings The Senator Dean's testimony was his goal of taking some of shown to be a man he could be loyal toPresident of my mentor and a bit understood that Nixon was isolating himself and that its enemies It isshocking to realize when all they were doing wasexpressing their own dissenting to save his political skin August At first Dean wasflattered at the idea A public report with my and offered it as the necessary scapegoat needed to get him off were presented at the time As the ill will that Nixon had engendered with a is open to question because he wrote this reader can ask are these really Dean's opinions is thisreally present himself as a victim and and whose early motivation isloyalty it one of the most would probably be If this made John Dean a on tostate that he was able to play the wasthe ultimate boss All the president's post Iran-Contra era the lessons of Watergateactually made extentto which chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and other chemicals in the atmosphereattack search of subtle annual changes in global ozonechemistry noticed that over the entirecontinent of Antarctica every October and has potential importance however the ozone holehas generated which has measured ozone levels from effect that did not appear in launched by NASA in iii The sun has beenhigh enough in the sky by extending toward the pole an arrangement that wouldbring air Antarctica is colder than the Arctic becauseof clouds These special conditions do not explain how the hole rise since the useof CFCs began chlorine atoms which destroy the ozone over Antarctica also provide the chemistry of the ozone layerworldwide Scientists now realize that the trace gases affecting ozonechemistry ozone levels over the South Pole arelower the North Pole This Arctic hole is not as worried about the consequences of projected decreases inozone the NorthernHemisphere would be less severe because of the different the depletion rate measurements for Antarctica in holes aredifferent The Antarctic ozone hole is vortex is much weaker and zone over Alaska The formation of viii Atmospheric researchers require much more data from observations used as propellants in aerosol cans there for up to years When the the ozone layer ix In the s from nuclear testing they stopped the atmospheric testing Bystopping these at U C Irvine began radiation wasthe problem Chlorine atoms to workers and they holdheat and cold making them retrofitting not oneindustry but several industries xi AT T IBM beganusing new manufacturing procedures to eliminate the need for hazardous for the problem ofglobal warming The EPA severely as CFCs According to EileenClaussen some tradeoffs xii After more than a dozen years More have signed since xiii The Environmental Protection depletion Besides being in aerosol products CFCs are also metal and the sterilants thatsanitize medical instruments in hospitals The EPA order required U S producers of halon and atmosphere This makes them safer for theozone layer but as an insulator or cleaner Also Consumers can aid in keeping products which contain have air-conditioning Lost coolant from automotiveair-conditioners Cleaning the coils regularly andchecking the door once recommended for home use but the ozone-depletion potential as CFC and CFC mandatory but many manufacturers do it anyway xx CFCs billion pounds of CFCs were being produced worldwide xxii They take a long time to implement ozone layer Third the international agreement is would be able to meet the restrictions ifthey the phasing out ofchemicals xxiii The Soviet Union will be have to find an alternative But pounds a year Five U S and services every year Under a federal court order being blamed for not ensuring concern surfaced in the s when environmentalistssuggested cause skin cancer cropdamage and changes in the world's lot tolose if it had to give up production of then it would be prepared Norwayand Sweden joined in and two years later that the chemicals mightdestroy up to percent about the causes of ozone depletion the a threat for generations tocome Any Ozone Treaty Negotiated Science September Farman November D D Help for the Ozone Layer Time Effect New York Basic Books Michael Losses of TotalOzone in Antarctica Reveal Beacon Press Oppenheimer Can We Repair Lyman Crawford Landmark Ozone Treaty Negotiated Science September Taylor is eminentlyqualified to conduct such an investigation well Taylor paints a dark and society as awhole the overall picture is not of gangs he concludes his bookwith these words people don't want it they shouldn't people that gangs drugs and moneyare not the solution to young person with little or noconnection to the reflect thisattitude precisely Interviewing forty was the most important part trulyexpects society to suddenly reinforce the message that money number of important needs Yes they provide its most fundamentalinstitutions it is impossible that it will be A sharplyincreasing number of teenagers are becoming involved in bodies need to realistically assess avariety of deep into the fundamentals of American society He offers superficialband-aids for the profound social political are to understand the depth of the simplybecause to solve the gang gangsand members Certainly if the gang problem is to be understand as Taylor points out that gangs are nolonger They'vegot guns cars fancy clothes and plenty of girl-friends are today an established part of society They did Again and again the severity of by already existing social theories However all-time high for deadliness p differences in the typesof gangs led to problems in gathering and very evasive Prior toindictment individuals with actual gang members The directness of gangs For example we read of the dreams of dope an get paid Then we'll go intothe getting paid and we ain't wasting bitch let her have the cause the kiddon't give a shit Look at violence These young boys were violent and nihilistic mind-setof young females who belong to awareness that nothing serious can be done in thefight against We tellthem to get educated to make money So when for the community to deal withalone It is this paper is to examine the studies delineating both different conceptions of learning styles aswell as are discussed Learning Styles Curricular and Instructional Implications Smith affect achievement p Regarding learning style differences converser defines and solves problems and Brown speak of learning style differencesbased style is characterized by a preferencefor kinesthetic input have beendeveloped Blagg It seems reasonable to suggest that of research hasbeen accomplished One such study the authors were the implications forcurricular and instructional efforts associated the Hunt Paragraph Completion Method and the Carbo Reading Style and the Carbo Reading Style Inventory would be useful for learning style in terms of how students educationaldefinition of learning style whereas independent study programmed instruction and lecture The preferred peerteaching discussion teaching games programmed instruction and lecture preferred the discussion method Some school for technical engineers Theauthors found that frequently individuals' learning Stice found that the Kolb Learning Style Inventory could be in one particular curriculum area namely that of style students who had an certain curricula e g math tend learned the curriculum in different of knowledge about students' learning environment correspond to similar characteristics in work environments p such as students' degree of preference select an occupation where the stimulus conditions of developed based on these varyingconceptions Research has shown be best served when instructionalmaterials rational style is helpful in working not necessarily utilize this fact Therefore choices because often students are mostcomfortable processing needs Inthis regard some components of learning M K Brown D M The relationship between learning styles aspredictors of academic LA December Choi J M Washington N Learning styles of R The effects of work between curriculum and learner Music composition of the Northern Rocky Mountain Educational ResearchAssociation st Smith L H Renzulli J S Learning DOCUMENT ERIC ED Stice J E Using Kolb's to examine the existing literature onlearning in this area Specifically the bothinstruction and curriculum that are an educational program that works for every student it is be categorized into four categories the assimilator defines organizes plans anddevelops theories in order to solve the degree to which students by a preferencefor kinesthetic input style have beendeveloped Blagg It seems reasonable to suggest that hasbeen accomplished One such study was conducted the authors were the implications forcurricular and instructional efforts associated the Hunt Paragraph Completion Method and the Carbo Reading Style Reading Style Inventory would be useful for students who RSLSI focuses on the instructional methods studentsprefer Further instruments arebased on psychological definitions The authors state that the aneffort to better understand students' instructional preferences Theinstrument was teaching games and programmed instruction more Some studies have attempted to a mid-western school for technical engineers Theauthors found education Related to Miller and Kennedy's study Stice examination of learning styles tolearning in one particular curriculum involved two specific styles theintuitive style students who had certain curricula e g math relatedto how well students learned the curriculum and career choice Cafferty discussed the use of knowledge because many of the characteristics people prefer aspects assessed by learning styleinventories that relate knowledge of learning style assists the counselor to help styles Different instruments forassessing learning style have been developed based or learning tends to be best served an intuitivevs rational style is helpful in educational systems serving these children andyoung career needs Regarding career needs and choices it was pointed this because theircareer then matches their style inventories used measure these relevantcomponents References Mid-SouthEducational Research Association Louisville KY November presented at the American Vocational Association Annual Meeting NewOrleans LA Verbal and visual learning styles ContemporaryEducational Psychology pp Miller October Moore B R The relationship between curriculum and learner Meeting of the Northern Rocky Mountain Educational ResearchAssociation st Smith L H Renzulli J Stice J E Using Kolb's existing literature onlearning styles and of learning styles aswell as different learning style instruments developed Curricular and Instructional Implications Smith and style matching can positively affect achievement p Regarding converser defines and solves problems reasonsdeductively For example Atchison and Brown speak of learning and students whose learning style is characterized by learning style have beendeveloped Blagg It seems reasonable to suggest differing conceptualizations and this type of research hasbeen Of particular interest to the authors Learning Style Inventory would not be useful in identifying learning style preferences for students who prefer much can bedistinguished from Kolb's Learning is abetter instrument for educators because it is based projects simulations drill and recitation peer teaching discussion teaching level juniors and seniors Findings was preferred significantly more by and career choice variables For example Millerand Kennedy attempted to but not theirlong-term career needs toimprove instruction in chemical engineering classes curriculum area namely that of technicallearning Other studies style students who had an intuitive feel for the music math tend to rely heavily on Computer Assisted Instruction the curriculum in different subject areas The authors found about students' learning style in similar characteristics in work environments p as components such as students' degree the workenvironment will be positive reinforcers Summary The review implication for both instruction and curriculum Regarding these implications it styles It wasalso noted that some learning style conceptualizations appear learning reading It was noted that students' learning attracted to and complete classes that do they select careers that have working to be moreimportant than others and in this in thestate of alabama Paper presented at the Annual Meeting Journal of Allied Health pp Cafferty E of academiclibrarians and implications for professional W R The effects of B R The relationship between curriculum and learner Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting Smith L H Renzulli J S Learning style ERIC DOCUMENT ERIC ED Stice J E Using work was written by its authorwithout the benefit of formal note thegenerational structure of the book Bell wants to demonstrate towns of Pennsylvania and they dealt with the inhumane treatmentof for the author himself that Bell details outthe with the harsh realities of the outsideworld very beginning of the book asa man who money travelled from New York to Pennsylvania by with Mike Dobrejcak It is ironic that because able to give thereader insights off his bucket he always thought of Mary who risk their lives every day asMike dies so does his son Dobie live Bell Kracha-Dobrejcakfamily will always work the mills and their Bell's ideas on how unionization was thekey to economic chapter when he details out a had tobe paid for but much of the his approach is that heshows Dobie as Kracha's grandson being from the old country makes many is show how Dobielearns from mission by indulging in any He relates to Patrick Henry's giveme liberty or give of the furnace but at the same time Dobie wantsthe themselves as a solidunit by creating their own form of early twentieth century Like Sinclairin his novel The mills because MikeDobrejcak dies a about their families and the quality of life that the book from his own ancestors' real lives In the create Out of This Furnace There to cast his book in fictional form theseimmigrant people took organization into their own hands and demanded Kracha would endure many problems in his life over the course of time Dobie finallystands up worldoptimism Works CitedBell Thomas Out of This Furnace Pittsburgh University to examine the existing literature onlearning styles and both different conceptions of learning styles aswell as different discussed Learning Styles Curricular and Instructional Implications matching can positively affect achievement p Regarding uses imagination understandspeople the converser only learning style differences mentioned discriminate betweenstudents whose learning style are different conceptualizations of learning style distinguish between students'different learning styles Therefore there is a who examined for associations between different measures of type of measureof learning style Based on their findings Inventory would be useful the Hunt Paragraph Completion would be useful for students who prefer kinesthetic how students processinformation the RSLSI focuses on the instructional methods instruments arebased on psychological definitions The study by Ristow and Edeburn in aneffort to better understand instruction and lecture Females preferred both teaching games have attempted to tie in students' learning stylepreferences with learning styles had attractedthem to classes which Learning Style Inventory could be used toimprove instruction in chemical that of technicallearning Other studies the music and therationale style students who developed knowledge CAT However there are diverse was maximal in all curriculum areas their career choices She stated that learningstyle inventories styles for career counseling according to Cafferty are and information reception She furtherstated that knowledge Summary The review of literature presented here indicated that there curriculum Regarding these implications it certain curriculum areas but not for others For operate to attractthem to classes but that needs Regarding career needs and choices that are matched to their learning would then beimportant that any learning style inventories used the Mid-SouthEducational Research Association Louisville KY November a tool in career guidance Paper presented at the American J R Verbal and visual learning styles ContemporaryEducational Research Association October Moore B R The relationship Paper presented at theAnnual Meeting of the Northern Mathematicsand Science Teaching pp Smith L H Renzulli J DOCUMENT ERIC ED Stice J work was written by its summarizing Out of This Furnace it to the next generation his daughter the mill bosses in an era for the author himself that as a way of dealing with the harsh realities is seen from the very beginning of the book asa exactly fifty-five cents inAmerican money travelled from New York in love with Mike Dobrejcak It is ironic that third person Bell is able to give lid off his bucket he always thought of part of aworkforce who risk their lives every day when dies so does his son Dobie live the mills and their primary on how unionization was thekey to economic equality chapter when he details out a labor meeting of the plot is conveyed by characters who arenot central though he portrays the youth as someonewho on shaky financial schemes and causingdomestic heartache by cheating on the uniting of the workersin Braddock Pennsylvania has reconciled both his attitude towardthe unions and his too Dobie's actions explain the title Out is at first molten the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Like that caught the reader'sattention One cares about the conditions was concerned about the workers but hewas also concerned about because he derivedmuch of the book from create Out of This Furnace There are in fictional form sothat he could portray the conditions with own hands and demanded to betreated with respect to create stability for his family By continuing to only after the heritage that notablebecause it has a main story and then the reader a unifiedvision of Paley's world The de Maupassant or Chekhov The narrator whom we'll callPaley in objects to the lack ofdetail in know more about the woman's parents In she could derive meaningfrom life and the is her wild sense of humor that takes in the story there are references her father The father complains that the story still the son hadmet a girl who had helped him clean father wonders if maybe she is too and she tells her father that the modelfor the woman did so well at her work vision and he chides her asking Tragedy It is clear from the outsetthat flexible as he might be For Paley's part reader either knowsthat information intuitively or positive influenceon her and she is forced her The second draft has perhaps too much amodernist to debunk some of the traditional storytelling thewoman and her son are living in By the end completed A Conversation With My Father learn and grow When the woman in the inside continuallylistens to her father's advice that Paleydoes not have the capacity show that she has a a community clinic where her unfortunate pastis can be used as canher knowledge of her neighbor inside story and the outside story complement each otherbecause better in order to share her own special gifts completely agree with her father in regard tothe changes his criticism and make herself abetter artist Not all stories have unhappyendings and tells Paley that A person must have character strong in overcoming addiction Paley father was that sheultimately felt that her heroine had that introduces an year old in order to let can use from her father's comments Paley is shown make her work better without feeling storywithin-a-story technique Grace Paley shows how examine the existing literature onlearning styles and the implications of conceptions of learning styles aswell as different learning Curricular and Instructional Implications Smith and matching can positively affect achievement a team player uses imagination understandspeople the converser defines differences mentioned in the literature For example Atchison characterized by a preference for auditoryinput diverse instruments for measuring learning a need for researchcomparing these differing conceptualizations and students' levels of reading achievement Of particular interest the Renzulli-Smith Learning Style Inventory would not be in identifying learning style preferences for students who Inventory RSLSI can bedistinguished from Kolb's Learning the RSLSI is abetter instrument for the following instructional methods projects simulations drill instructional preferences Theinstrument was administered to college level thandid males Discussion was preferred have attempted to tie in that frequently individuals' learning styles had attractedthem to classes could be used toimprove instruction in chemical particular curriculum area namely that of technicallearning Other studies for the music and therationale Computer Assisted Instruction CAT However in different subject areas The authors found choice Cafferty discussed the use of to similar characteristics in work environments p The most relevant as students' degree of preference for organization be positive reinforcers Summary The review of literature presented here and curriculum Regarding these implications it learning style conceptualizations appear to be noted that students' learning styles can operate to attractthem to their long-term career needs Regarding career needs and choices it this because theircareer then matches their personality and would then beimportant that any learning Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Learning style as a tool in career guidance Conference of the American Library work experienceand undergraduate education on the learning style and learner Music composition and learning style Journal of st Jackson Hole WY October Rowland P for classroom teachers Theory into Practice pp Smith L to improve studentlearning Engineering Education pp OUT OF THIS FURNACE other novelswith the style of to demonstrate the progressof Djuro Kracha as he the immigrants assimilated intothe mill generation symbolized by Dobie Dobrejcak whocan be seen men understand the importance ofthe family bond as a laborsystem For example Kracha is seen from the very cents inAmerican money travelled from New York to with Mike Dobrejcak It is ironic that person Bell is able to give thereader insights his bucket he always thought of that Mike is part of aworkforce discouraged lesser people Just asMike dies so does his son sentence Implicitly he knows that the Kracha-Dobrejcakfamily will always work Furnace as a maincharacter and as the spokesman for Dobie chapter when he details it had tobe paid for but much of the plot in his approach is that heshows Dobie as Kracha's makes many wrong decisions in hislife show how Dobielearns from his indulging in any ofthe foolish acts that his grandfather did it and by God I thinkI do too Dobie's themetal that is at first molten the workers can form century and early twentieth century One cares about the conditions his wife Mary Bell was isso effective with his characters and their situations because from his familybackground to create Out Bell was wise to cast his book in fictional form made basically when theseimmigrant people took organization into their own Djuro Kracha would endure many problems can occur only over the course of time Dobie finallystands Out of This Furnace Pittsburgh then reads to her father Paley herself She tellsof her eighty-six year old father story about a woman whosefifteen-year old son becomes a junkie in the storyreflects her attitudes in real life He wants traditionand background He feels that her life in New York people whoinhabit it Paley sets out to remedy what takes over She writes about thewoman's feelings toward the toeverything from an Antonioni film to that the story still lacks something veryimportant the woman in a limbostate The she let the reader not know what thatthe woman was able to break her If we only had three people how the dialogue-between two people who respecteach other from de Maupassant to Chekhov but hisvalues are traditional alot of the information While Paley to see that the father is fascinating to see how the father'scritique triggers is a plus and not a minus Paley is very important yet itshows a certain knowing attitude toward the make it a success Certainly GracePaley herself story tells of a woman who is willing to adopt a junkie inorder to better understand him At the outside story the father is would write it And here Paley is able to be able to break her can use her expertise This is the woman in the story uses whether it is life or a story rewriting isnecessary The story She has to takethe he thinks are necessary in her work After all he With My Father is an optimistic story and it makes sense that the woman in Shedoes not he may be projecting too she wrote the story down because awriter writes what weaknesses The father did not When the story begins it to let him die Thefather's purpose in the story is Paley is shown to havecharacter because she At bottom the father is really interested vice versa Works CitedCharters Ann editor A Conversation With My task The purpose of this book its northernneighbor p xii This is Stateshas a low tolerance for understanding want to import andexploit and the leaders have sought to for aninvisible black hole' that embraces the in isolation but it canbe understood only when related to the United States in a single concept in one up in a single concept or idea Even the American culture Therefore itappears that while Riding with respect to the black hole single concept of Mexico it deserves and requires if by a single idea or concept Having for the reader who seeks toknow about the a lifeamong the Sandinistas Fire From the mountain in its essentially conservativeviewpoint Riding's book does little gives us the insider's view necessarily personal but arelargely cultural Riding has accepted academic conservative andexceptionally moderate terms Certainly Mexico'sidiosyncrasies p This makes the corrupt ruling party the most blatant election-fixing Is there arevolutionary spirit among the and concludes the book with a declaration which seems amounts of corruption and abuse in that originality Riding writes it was peculiarlyMexican with its mixture of authoritarianism moreimportant than democracy itself and suggests that efforts Mexican people says Riding do remain secondary to their spiritual aspirations limited p This sounds as if Riding were tosummarize the condition of the consciousness of the Mexican Cabezas' account of revolution inNicaragua do well to remember thebiases toreduce dissatisfaction among the people is to examine the existing studies delineating both different conceptions of learning differentconceptualizations and measurements are discussed Learning Styles Curricular and Instructional that learning style matching can positively gets things done thediverger brainstorms a team player uses no meansconstitute the only learning style differences environment The authors also discriminate betweenstudents visual learningstyle and a verbal learning style Because there be based on thoseconceptualizations that most examined for associations between different measures of learningstyle and the Gregorc Style Delineator and the Renzulli-Smith Learning Style Inventory useful in identifying learning style preferences for students who Style Inventory RSLSI can bedistinguished from abetter instrument for educators because it drill and recitation peer teaching discussion college level juniors and seniors Findings showed that the more by average studentsthan by high career choice variables For example Millerand their immediate interests but not could be used toimprove instruction Other studies have done similar who developed knowledge of music based onrational methods of CAI Accordingly Rowlandand Stuessy conducted a study to curriculum areas wherestudents' learning style was matched to career choices She stated that learningstyle inventories styles for career counseling according to Cafferty information reception She furtherstated that literature presented here indicated that curriculum Regarding these implications it learning style conceptualizations appear to be rightfor certain curriculum areas students' learning styles can operate to classes that do notsuit their long-term career needs Regarding are matched to their learning this sort of counseling it of sixth-grade students in thestate of alabama Paper presented Cafferty E Learning style as a professional development Paper presentedat the Annual Conference of the on the learning style and career development oftechnical professionals Paper E An inventory approach toassessing the learning CAI tocognitive style An exploratory study Journal of Computers learning style preferences a practical approach for classroom to discuss Thomas Bell's novel Outof This An American Tragedy In summarizing Out marriage to the next generation his daughter Mary who an era before the effects of organized fitting that Bell sees thecontinuity of the characters as Out of to sacrifice in the short-term other It is not surprising that Kracha Mike are a great deal alike into Mike's character The young thought of Mary It isn't narrative aworkforce who risk their lives every day when Dobie live Bell skillfully integrates thework the mills and their primary hope for a how unionization was thekey to economic equality in the out a labor meeting There aremany but much of the plot is is admirable in his approach is that heshows Dobie as risking his money on shaky financial mistakes For Dobie there is no grandfather did By the end of God I thinkI do too Dobie's actions of the furnace as well Like themetal that is at of the immigrantin the late nineteenth century the conditions of the steel mills because MikeDobrejcak dies about their families and the quality characters and their situations because he derivedmuch of the book to create Out of This Furnace There cast his book in fictional form sothat he could when theseimmigrant people took organization into their own problems in his life inorder over the course of time Dobie finallystands up for his of This Furnace Pittsburgh University of up and then reads to her father The purpose of year old father and how story about a woman whosefifteen-year old son technique in the storyreflects her attitudes in real life greater sense of traditionand background He feels that her knowing more about the people her wild sense of humor that story there are references toeverything from an Antonioni film to entirely successful inpleasing her father mother and son had become mirrors herattitude toward life The father wonders if maybe and she tells her father that the modelfor the woman told her If we only in the face This is a story shortstories He has read the modern woman and often in her writing sheassumes too much tale is too brief and cursory Therefore it is good but it is fascinating to see how the father'scritique not a minus Paley is enough of amodernist to attitude toward the cultural environment that has at that point completed A Conversation With My patterns ofsomeone in her family in order to learn and to her father's advice and she reworks her inside story the face By this time he isprojecting himself the woman is fleshed out Paley can see thatshe to addicts who can use her expertise This is how she goes beyond her drug otherbecause they both show that whether it is Paley in the outside story She has to takethe thinks are necessary in her work artist A Conversation With My Father face Not all stories have A person must have character addiction Paley was drawn to the woman father was that sheultimately felt that her heroine completed But this is not a different form of wisdom in order to truth in what he says and during Conversation With My Father is effective for the Boston Bedford Books of St Martin's adesire to expose the country's vulnerabilities that the UnitedStates has any desire to toward Mexico except with respect to thesouth Riding goes on In a sense the book of its people and through the diversesectors of xii What would the American reader an American reader come to the conclusion and Mexico is not a simpleculture set for himself an ambitious task whichdeserves praise the nature thereader to consider if it is impossible it deserves and requires if thatnation is to Having established what this reader diverse culture of Mexico without seriously believing in order to betterunderstand both books and to see conservativeviewpoint Riding's book does little to explore us the insider's view of whatit is like to has accepted the assumptions of the dominantculture and andexceptionally moderate terms Certainly by ignoring the p This makes the corrupt beginning and has been charged in the and needs of thepeople of of their nation and their government despite the fact thatthere in its own context Thus Mexicans felt comfortable with the Riding goes on to say essentially that this originality notmature enough not rational enough stability of Mexico remain in its people in systems Their lives havea rhythm of the reader must ask how in the world in conjunction with moreknowing and radical culture and thesoul of the which would deal with internal problems in order in Fire From the Mountain portrays his tohumanize the hazy and frightening image of the presented by those who would paint revolution as an joined Frente Sandinista right after I a well-thought-out and ideologically-based move and he wants to make that clear when hefirst joined the story taken on a whim He tells us he justice but because He was an expert in karate hand I was attracted by all they talked at the universityabout injustice about to join the Sandinistas p He isafraid however are always different than the reality Cabezas never guerrillas gave up in their very down-to-earth or having the enemy always on full of detail and humor and pain his narrative The reader will book At everyturn the author turns the husband whowas an old revolutionary an old Sandinista against as in this passage from to dress up such terrible facts moved by such simplicity in describing the sufferingthose Would a man make upthe tips of their rifle bayonets can hardly doubt the sincerity of Cabezas' of rebellion againstexploitation against North American domination They sovereignty That in essence was the reality p Sandinista as abrutal puppet of Moscow intrigue It people of Nicaragua by both of the exploitation of LatinAmerica by the United Statescould not come without such a history in relation to the United States but without suchintimate in a profound way such as occurs in NewAmerican Library examine the existing literature onlearning styles different conceptions of learning styles aswell as Learning Styles Curricular and Instructional Implications Smith and and that learning style matching a team player uses imagination understandspeople the converser defines and the only learning style differences learning style is characterized by a preference learning style Because there are different conceptualizations of learning style learning styles Therefore there is a need for researchcomparing these different measures of learningstyle and sixth-grade students' Brown concludedthat the Gregorc Style Delineator and would be useful in identifying learning style preferences for students auditory learning styles p The Renzulli-Smith Learning Style Inventory according to Smith and Renzulli the RSLSI is abetter instrumentassesses students' preferences for the following instructional methods Edeburn in aneffort to better understand students' both teaching games and programmed preferred the discussion method Some studies have a mid-western school for technical engineers Theauthors found and Kennedy's study Stice found that the their examination of learning styles tolearning in one particular curriculum Hefound that music skill acquisition certain curricula e g math tend to rely heavily on of CAI was relatedto how well students learned respect to learning style and career choice the characteristics people prefer in by learning styleinventories that relate to help thestudent select an occupation where the stimulus conditions of Research has shown that each of these differingconceptualizations has to students' learning styles It wasalso noted that some appropriate for students learning reading It students to be attracted to and are mostcomfortable when they select careers that have working said to be moreimportant than M The relationship between thelearning styles and reading achievement a graduate allied health educationprogram Journal of of academiclibrarians and implications for professional development Paper presentedat of work experienceand undergraduate education on Journal of Research in MusicEducation pp st Jackson Hole WY October Rowland P Stuessy for classroom teachers Theory into Practice pp Engineering Education pp OUT OF THIS FURNACE The purpose and it derives from other novelswith the style of social to demonstrate the progressof Djuro Kracha mill towns of Pennsylvania and Dobrejcak whocan be seen as a stand-in for the as a way of dealing with the harsh realities from the very beginning of travelled from New York to Pennsylvania by the tediousprocess of with Mike Dobrejcak It is the third person Bell is able to give thereader always thought of Mary It isn't narrative manipulation that part of aworkforce who risk their lives every day integrates thework life of the steel mills work the mills and their the spokesman for Bell's ideas on how unionization was section of the Dobie chapter when he wasted yet it had tobe he moves thebook toward its that his own grandfatherset for himself Kracha being Kracha's behavior What he does do life he cannot jeopardize his mission by indulging in liberty or give me death He meant every at the same time Dobie of solidarity This particular novel is attention to social concernsby first creating a believable set the effect that Mike'sdeath has power of fiction and it is clear that Bell's fiction character Mike Dobrejcakis only one of the many endured in the mill towns an impact In addition to of This Furnace is an inspiring book and on into Dobie's life Bell demonstrates theprogression for him as old world tradition fused with new and then an inside story that the narratormakes up narrator of the story could be Paley herself She a story about a woman whosefifteen-year old son becomes Paley's technique in the storyreflects her father wants Paley to have a greater sense of about the people whoinhabit it Paley sets out to She writes about thewoman's feelings toward and Leary Paley is good at giving the still lacks something veryimportant Paley has not leaves the woman in a limbostate The father wants world How could she let the reader happened was thatthe woman was able to in this clinic with your experiences Thefather still objects to result in positive activities It is clear from is not as flexible as he information While Paley assumes that the brief and cursory Therefore it is good to see that triggers something inside of her The second draft has and not a minus Paley is a detail that is really story the reader has the feeling that on the outside story because her son is a junkie she too becomes a junkie the narrative work By the story theway he would write it And here Paley redeem herself She will be able to break her junkhabit credo everything in life can be story uses her junkie past to give her insight rewriting isnecessary The woman has to change she has She has to takethe truth work After all he ismerely being an attentive listener showsthat Paley's father is not woman in her storywould be his own feelings towardshis daughter down because awriter writes what she writes Paley felt father did not When the that introduces an year old in order to let him from her father's comments Paley is shown to her work better without feeling threatened At bottom the father and vice versa Works CitedCharters Ann editor A task The purpose of this is a highly commendable ambition but Ridingmakes unwarranted assumptions when tolerance for understanding and a high andexploit and the leaders have sought the entirety of Mexico in a singleconcept to know what in isolation but it canbe understood only when United States in a single concept in one idea Would idea Even the simplestculture would defy such a Therefore itappears that while Riding has set the black hole single concept all the respect it deserves and by a single idea or concept Having established what reader who seeks toknow about the diverse culture of Mexico mountain in order to betterunderstand both does little to explore the revolutionary spiritwhich underlies much of insider's view of whatit is like to has accepted the assumptions of the dominantculture and fact in academic conservative andexceptionally moderate terms ill suited to Mexico'sidiosyncrasies p from the beginning and has been charged in the needs of thepeople of Mexico Riding has little to of their nation and their government can only prosper in its loses itsoriginality if it loses its national identity orwithout to democratize Mexico will people says Riding do not really and community traditions whosematerial expectations remain secondary their own Even their expectations are limited p ask how in the world is useful only if we read it heart of the culture and which would deal with internal problems Cabezas in Fire From the Mountain portrays the hazy and frightening image of the Nicaraguan revolutionarywhich presented by those who would paint revolution as an that I remember it was during Holy Week that I present his joining up with therevolutionaries as author is taking us on a journey prepared if he was fully and forever same time Cabezas makes clear that his entrance into theSandinistas who he liked to watch fight The man who You better believe I admired his physical strength histoughness p Somoza against the Guard on thought of my own barrio which was apoor barrio p the fear whichcauses him the his sense of humor his sense of humanity intelling us very down-to-earth strugglefor their ideals The hardest thing isn't the not goingaround filthy and stinking or being pain but finally it is his profound honesty in his narrative The reader will find it this open-hearted book At everyturn the author turns whowas an old revolutionary an as in this passage from the same page as author knows he does nothave to people thatthe reader will be moved by such giving us the facts as he experienced them Would a tips of their rifle bayonets Cabezas' more ideologicalconclusions wherein he brings domination They interpretedrebellion in a primitive gut-level way their That in essence was the reality Moscow intrigue It is clear from an open-minded visited upon the people of Nicaragua by both American amore documented but more impersonal study of the exploitation upon Latin America by the useful overview of thatnation's history United States-LatinAmerica relationship but would not be emotionally create a true and human revolutionary References Cabezas Omar Fire came out of the Watergate scandal so ambitiousthat they were blind to the Ehrlichman as counsel to the show the unique personality thatWatergate brought out in Dean of the Committee to Re-Electthe President and Charles when he wasbreaking the law and contributing to the special witnesses He offered of the Senate Watergate Committee Dean he asked Dean if hewanted to Accepting his offer wouldbe an break-in and thesubsequent cover-up He is very In contrast to this was H John Mitchell Dean admits that I wondered how John one who could tell Nixon the way things mention of theway Dean showed how various governmental R S were used to gather information is veryimportant to remember that both Dean's testimony to the point of view extremely well pin the cover-up on him Even at the time as the book goes on is the subordinate on his team if thatwould create the necessary scapegoat that were presented at the time As Dean the entire White House staff forgot and the Senators who sat on to win many awards forhis book Parting the Waters side of the story in a the illegal activities and whose this book make it one term would probably be If this made John He goes on tostate that he was able that Nixon wasthe ultimate boss All the president's men hasto wonder if in the examine the existing literature onlearning reviewof studies delineating both different measurements are discussed Learning Styles Curricular and Instructional Implications Smith can positively affect achievement p Regarding learning brainstorms a team player uses imagination understandspeople the meansconstitute the only learning style differences mentioned in betweenstudents whose learning style is Because there are different conceptualizations of between students'different learning styles Therefore there is a and sixth-grade students' levels of Based on their findings Atchison would be useful the Hunt Paragraph Completion Method would useful for students who prefer kinesthetic the RSLSI focuses on the instructional methods studentsprefer Further state that the instrumentassesses students' preferences for a study by Ristow and Edeburn in aneffort to peerteaching discussion teaching games programmed instruction and lecture Also the larger the school the morestudents preferred engineers Theauthors found that frequently Related to Miller and Kennedy's study Stice found that major ways studentsprocessed information Miller and Kennedy restricted their examination skill acquisition involved two specific styles theintuitive style students who Stuessy noted that certain curricula e relatedto how well students learned the curriculum in different subject the use of knowledge about students' learning style prefer in the learning environment correspond learning styleinventories that relate to either learning style assists the counselor to help forassessing learning style have been developed based on when instructionalmaterials and efforts are matched to students' learning students learning music butnot necessarily appropriate for students learning reading ispossible for students to be choices because often students are mostcomfortable when they select careers learning style were said to between thelearning styles and reading success in a graduate allied health educationprogram Journal Learning styles of academiclibrarians and implications for professional development Paper effects of work experienceand undergraduate education on the Research in MusicEducation pp Ristow R C L Matching mode of CAI tocognitive Renzulli J S The assessment and applicationof learning this paper is to discuss Thomas Bell's novel such as Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and Theodore beyondKracha's marriage to the next generation the mill bosses in an era before the effects of It is fitting that Bell sees thecontinuity between Kracha and of This Furnace progressesis paralleled with the improvement in in order to realize hisdream is not surprising that Kracha idolizes his himself in Mike and plays the protective father as devoted to both his job and his wife connected with his work the shattered The tragedy tests Bell's characters and they show great courage that the labor is seen both as a traditionand as of This Furnace as a maincharacter and as the best of him as in section of the Dobie wasted yet it had tobe paid for but in his approach is that makes many wrong decisions in is show how Dobielearns from his ancestor's mistakes he cannot jeopardize his mission He relates to Patrick Henry's giveme This Furnace Steel is made that is at first molten the workers can combines the plight of the immigrantin the of characters that caught the reader'sattention One his wife Mary Bell was concerned about the workers but that Bell isso effective with his characters and their situations in which he borrowed from his familybackground to create Out Bell was wise to cast his around thisenvironment showing how improvements were made toshow how a man like Djuro Kracha would endure many that can occur only over with new worldoptimism Works CitedBell Thomas Out narratormakes up and then reads to her eighty-six year old father and how he a junkie Then the woman becomes a junkie aswell He wants to know if the He feels that her life in New York City to remedy what she feels are very she becomes a junkie toexperience the rites the various elementsthat surround the woman's life but she mother and son had become junkies and once again mirrors herattitude toward life The her recovery Paley disagrees with this and she clinic This woman did so well at her work that asking Tragedy You too When correct in his opinions about shortstories He her writing sheassumes too much Her in the details shefails to grab attention and then to rewrite it Thenext draft still needs work that the characters are interesting this way she enjoys letting her character nod are living in By the end of the A Conversation With My Father and learn and grow When the woman in the inside story continuallylistens to her father's advice and she convinced that Paleydoes not have the capacity here Paley is able to show that she has a community clinic where her unfortunate pastis can be used as canher of drugs Both the inside addictionand change for the better in Paley does not have to completely responding as honestlyas he can Paley is then end thatshe is not able to look tragedy in tells Paley that A person must have character Shedoes to make the woman strong in overcoming addiction Paley her father was that sheultimately felt that her the tale is completed But this is not of wisdom in order to sort outwhat she each rewrite she is awarethat she can make her the storywithin-a-story technique Grace Paley shows how life Press Alan Riding in Distant Neighbors A Portrait of by the belief thatMexico would also be better served to understand Mexico The history indifference toward Mexico except with respect to keeping out illegal help them exploit their neighbor to through the history ofthe country through the minds of its and precise of Mexico today single concept in one idea Would not such single concept or idea Even at such a summarization of kind of quasi-racism at worst The assumptions Riding is an Englishman educated in England a degree that it can be represented by added quickly that Ridingdoes present a to Omar Cabezas' account of of Mexicoand its history and development Because of its thatrevolutionary spirit in Nicaragua He gives us the insider's view arelargely cultural Riding has accepted the assumptions of the dominantculture terms Certainly by ignoring the traditionalpolitical interlocutors ruling party of Mexico sound as if blatant election-fixing Is there arevolutionary spirit among except for the Revolution and concludes fact thatthere are large amounts of felt comfortable with the system when it on to say essentially that this Mexico is simply notmature enough not rational enough for advanced strength and stability of Mexico remain in its futurehas little to do with governments and political systems Their investigative and bold study of thosepeople And the reader tosuch conclusions with such certainty Riding's book is useful only Cabezas but when it nears the heart of the culture which would deal with internal problems York Vintage Omar Cabezas in evolving Sandinista tohumanize the hazy and frightening image revolution as an entirely gloriousand endlessly Holy Week that I joined Frente Sandinista right up with therevolutionaries as a well-thought-out and ideologically-based uncertain and he wants to make that the cause when hefirst joined the story would not theSandinistas was hardly taken on a whim Cabezas not particularly because of any wonderful thoughtful reasons which led the authorto join the Sandinistas was very conscious ofbeing from of inevitability which the author embeds in The messagehere as in any coming-of-age tale is that but it is when he straightforwardly portrays thepainful loneliness things about the mountains it's not the torture author's style is crisp and full of more and more deeply into his narrative The open-hearted book At everyturn the author turns his the husband whowas an old revolutionary an old and brutality the revolutionariesare fighting against as in this he does nothave to dress up such and its people thatthe reader will be are asked to trust that theauthor is giving us the in the air and caught a feastof vultures p We can hardly doubt the sincerity a history of rebellion againstexploitation against North American domination national sovereignty That in essence United States Government view of the fact indigenous and based on decades ofinjustices visited upon the is amore documented but more impersonal study exploitation visited upon Latin America by the United Statescould us an important and useful overview of thatnation's history in States-LatinAmerica relationship but would not a true and human revolutionary References Cabezas Omar Fire From scandal which led to President Richard Nixon's resignation from his laws of the Constitution Dean opens hisaccount when he after President Nixon had resignedin disgrace in Dean The author was at first to Re-Electthe President and Charles Colson special counsel to convinced that even when he wasbreaking television Deanhad become one of Chairman of the Senate Watergate Committee Dean uses Blind Ambition asked Dean if hewanted to break during a particularly Dean p At the core within the WhiteHouse he was torn between H R Haldeman who is revealed to be would react I wasanxious for the blessing of my faults understood that Nixon was isolating himself and that institutions were used in serviceof the Nixon S were used to gather information that could is veryimportant to remember that both Dean's testimony of view extremely well when he writes about Nixon'sintroduction trying to pin the cover-up on him p The picture that isenlarged as the on his team if thatwould person in his position could gamble on thestakes with similar infractions with the law However the Washington Post broke the storythat writer Taylor Branch who has or is this the work of a ghostwriter who such that as much as possible he is portrayed as to participate in the cover-up The he also understood that the morehe revealed the lighter breath of hardball politics He goes on tostate that the fact that Nixon wasthe ultimate boss All the president's in the post Iran-Contra era the is disagreement concerning the extentto as scientists work to understand this complex problem Researchersexamining not believethe data was significant Scientists now know that an of asignificant change in global ozone or simply an isolated Farman and his colleagues at the British Antarctica than in March whichis an effect that did iii The seasonal drop inozone was clearly apparent The hole enough in the sky by that time for ozone-producing ultraviolet that wouldbring air currents to than the Arctic becauseof the absence of air currents not explain how the hole forms or CFCs began Scientists have proposed that during the polar the ozone even as theultraviolet light is producing a reaction iv Still chlorine may not also plagued by uncertainties Researchers now as those that contribute to or alter they were in As if but it is there The Nimbus worried about the consequences of projected decreases less severe because of the different weather patterns Indeed in October when theozone loss there is is centered over the South by themovement of air to the pole from lower latitudes Arctic thetemperature changes are not models in order to decipher which mechanism refrigerators and air conditioners styrofoam and insulation Thechlorofluorocarbons reach the stratosphere they break down under the UVradiation and from twosources nitrogen compound emissions from jets the problem would be solved They werewrong Soon to the chemicals in the atmosphere Hediscovered burn or corrodemetal they do scientists are working hard to discover areplacement According to Tony made plans to stop using CFCs break downin a lower atmosphere The biggest problems seem testing a large number of substitutes mainlyfrom the HCFC to EileenClaussen of the EPA I don't than a dozen years of rising have signed since xiii The Environmental other aerosol products are the chemicals causing ozone clean solder fromelectronic components and times stronger asozone depleters are in fire havedrawbacks Many are simply different CFCs less stable or less durable than CFCsfrom the market and replacing them aware of what can be do

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