Discusses pros and cons of holding the Summer Olympics in the state in 2012. Major issue of security. Threat of terrorism. Tourism decrease in Florida after 9/11. Pros and cons of Central Florida as a site, and elements involved. The timeline. Facilities for Olympic events. Travel considerations. Housing of competitors and fans.
Pros and Cons of Florida 2012 Introduction The issue that is at the basis of this paper is “Florida 2012”, the name given to the... more
Pros and Cons of Florida 2012 Introduction The issue that is at the basis of this paper is “Florida 2012”, the name given to the organization spearheading a move to have the Tampa/Clearwater/Orlando region declared the site of the Summer Olympics in 2012. Several million dollars has been raised by the steering committee, and the citizens of the state are divided as to whether or not hosting the Olympics is the most feasible past time that the State should be pursuing at the moment. This is based on the fact that Florida is being mentioned daily (and sometimes hourly) by news media around the world, usually in connection with the handful of young Muslims who felt compelled to take advantage of Florida’s mythic hospitality and use the state, and
Examines perceptions of coaches. How these perceptions are influenced by winning and losing, and coaches' feedback patterns. Discusses the CBAS (Coaching Behavior Assessment System); how it is used to measure and understand social reinforcements given to athletes by coaches. Research findings. Motivation theory. Associatioin between outcomes and coaching behaviors. CBAS Chart.
Introduction This literature review will examine athletes’ perceptions of coaches and how those perceptions are influenced by winning and... more
Introduction This literature review will examine athletes’ perceptions of coaches and how those perceptions are influenced by winning and losing and coaches’ feedback patterns. The organization of the literature review focuses on the following topical areas: (1) athletes’ perceptions of coaches; (2) coaches’ feedback patterns; and (3) the effects of winning and losing on athletes’ perceptions of coaches. Athletes’ Perceptions of Coaches Smith, Smoll, and Hunt (1977) developed the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) to measure and understand the social reinforcements provided by coaches to athletes and the effects of these reinforcements on the athletes and their performance. The general findings of research examining coaching behavior within t
Discusses move toward public funding for construction and or improvement of sports facilities for professional sports teams and franchises. Issue of who will pay for stadiums. Expanded business sales in stadium areas. Role of state governments. Pros and cons of taxpayer financing. Need for accountability and oversight to protect taxpayers.
Sports Stadia: Taxpayer Funding Concerns I. Identification of the Problem Prior to 1953, only one major league baseball club played in a... more
Sports Stadia: Taxpayer Funding Concerns I. Identification of the Problem Prior to 1953, only one major league baseball club played in a stadium funded by any government body and 75 percent of funding for all ballparks came from private sources. Excluding government-funded stadia built to attract the Olympics, American professional sports teams played in facilities that were funded with private investment capital (Public financing of…, 2001). Since then, bankers have come to estimate that about 20 percent of all professional American sports teams are somewhere in the process of building new stadiums, with franchises in all major sports leagues turning to government at the local and state level for a substantial portion of the costs associated with constructing these facilities (Garrity, 2000). The pro
Proposes a research design to determine the degree to which high school football coaches & trainers use personalized strength & weight training to assist their athleles in gaining enhanced performance. Specific types of programs and their benefits. Review of the literature. Methodology to be used. Anticipated results based on data analysis.
Strength Training and Athletic Performance Abstract The proposed research focuses on determining the degree to which high school football... more
Strength Training and Athletic Performance Abstract The proposed research focuses on determining the degree to which high school football coaches and trainers employ personalized strength and weight training regimens to assist their athletes in gaining strength, endurance, and overall improvements in conditioning, leading to enhanced performance. A review of literature was employed to develop a quantitative survey using a sample of 100 randomly selected secondary school football coaches from all playing divisions within the state. Using an instrument developed by the researcher, two research questions were asked: 1) to what degree do coaches use strength and weight training programs; and 2) what specific types of programs are employed at the secondary school level, and what are the bene
Examines how athletics help to develop leadership qualities. Importance of issue. Social context. Focus on team sports as illustrating relationship between leader & those he leads. Vital role of the coach. Importance of rules. Gives examples of specific coaches (Phil Jackson, Vince Lombardi) & players (Michael Jordan, Shaquille O'Neal) with leadership qualities.
This study will examine how athletics helps to develop leadership qualities. This issue is important because of the emphasis on sports in modern... more
This study will examine how athletics helps to develop leadership qualities. This issue is important because of the emphasis on sports in modern society, and, therefore, both young and older athletes learn many lessons about life and behavior from sports. It is also crucial to differentiate between the emphasis on winning that is so prevalent at every level of sports today, and the leadership which transcends victory or defeat. By "leadership," this study will refer to those qualities which drive an individual to excel himself or herself, but which also drives that individual to help and inspire others to reach their potential as well in a team-oriented, cooperative atmosphere. An excellent player will always want to excel, but an effective leader must practice and instill in others on the team the desire to excel as a team, not merely as a group of individuals. In
Factors associated with motivation. Purpose of performance improvement and high quality performance. Examines differences in research motivation in relation to athletic performance. Need achievement model; intrinsic motivation. Goal theory model; outcome goals set by athletes. Impact of motivational climate created by coaches, schools, organizations. Influence of coaching behaviors.
MOTIVATING ATHLETES: LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction How can coaches motivate athletes to perform to the best of their ability? The review... more
MOTIVATING ATHLETES: LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction How can coaches motivate athletes to perform to the best of their ability? The review of literature presented here attempts to answer this question by examining salient research. All studies examined are analyzed in terms of how they defined motivation, their research questions, sample subjects, data collection/analysis methods, findings, and conclusions. The review ends with a summary of research findings and an application of these to motivating athletes to perform at their personal best. Research on Motivation Even a cursory review of the literature on motivation in relation to athletic performance indicates that researchers define and me
Focuses on track and field players. Overview of theory of sports anxiety in general. Debilitating effect on performance. Reviews three experiments dealing with anxiety levels of athletes. Contends that the cognitive-behavioral model of sports anxiety helps explain variance in athletes' performance. Other factors such as self-confidence levels, expectations, the complexity of the sport.
SPORTS ANXIETY IN RUNNING TRACK: NATURE OF THE PROBLEM AND STEPS TO CORRECT IT Introduction As noted by Orlick and Partington (1998),... more
SPORTS ANXIETY IN RUNNING TRACK: NATURE OF THE PROBLEM AND STEPS TO CORRECT IT Introduction As noted by Orlick and Partington (1998), the ability to cope with pressure and anxiety is an important element of success in the field of sports; this is particularly true of elite athletes (Hardy, Jones & Gould, 1996). The problem is that when anxiety levels become too high, they can serious affect an athlete’s ability to focus on skills and flow in performance causing even a very skilled athlete to experience a lack of success in competitive sports (Swain & Jones, 1996). This paper examines sports anxiety as related to running track. The paper begins with an overview of theory regarding the general problem of sports anxiety and its potential for debilitating perf
Addresses the high increase in sports salaries. Focus on professional baseball. Lack of a salary cap in major league baseball. Lack of parity among teams. Impact of TV rights, size of the market. Management. Idea of revenue sharing. Proposals to level the playing field. Owner greed.
Professional Sports Player Salaries The past decade has witnessed a staggering increase in professional sports player salaries. Baseball... more
Professional Sports Player Salaries The past decade has witnessed a staggering increase in professional sports player salaries. Baseball appears to be the sport where these increases have come closest to ruining the game. Unlike the parity between teams that exists in the NFL, the lack of a salary cap in major league baseball (MLB) equates to a wildly uneven playing field. Rising salaries and payrolls are cited as a major reason teams like the New York Yankees, Los Angeles Dodgers and other high-end teams are perennial post-season darlings while low-end teams like the Minnesota Twins and the Montreal Expos seldom make post-season play. As Minnesota General Manager Terry Ryan notes about rising payrolls: “Ten years ago we were in the middle of the pack with a $27 million payroll and today we ar
Discusses major components. Prevention of injuries. Recognition and treatment of injuries. Treatments and rehabilitation of athletes. Dangers of premature return to activity by athletes. Role of coaches and health care professionals. Psychological aspects of sports injuries (stress and anxiety). Goals of physiotherapists.
The management of sports injuries has led to the development of a specialized field known as Sports Medicine. The major components of sports medicine... more
The management of sports injuries has led to the development of a specialized field known as Sports Medicine. The major components of sports medicine are the prevention of injuries, the recognition and treatment of injuries, and rehabilitation of athletes from injuries (CAPS, 121). There is some overlap between these three entities because the early recognition and treatment of an injury can lead to full rehabilitation and reduce the risk of recurrence of the injury at a later date. Coaches need to be aware of preventive practices to reduce the number and severity of injuries in professional athletes. Coaches must understand how athletes need to prepare for performing their sport, such as making sure they have proper strength training and conditioning techniques, and use progressive skills development techniques. They must be aware of the causes of sports injuries so th
Discusses dramatic increase in salaries. Focus on team sports. Issues of owner exploitation of players, whether or not athletes deserve their high salaries. Superstar strategies. How team owners deal with higher costs. Impact on consumers. Behavior of leagues and teams. How player unions and free agents have contributed to problems caused by higher salaries.
Introduction Sports salaries increased dramatically during the last 25 years of the twentieth century, with athletes in the major American sports... more
Introduction Sports salaries increased dramatically during the last 25 years of the twentieth century, with athletes in the major American sports making considerably more than those who came before. Team sports have received the most attention with regard to salary, since there is much attention paid to the negotiations between owners and players, and team sports garner significant audiences both in arenas or stadiums as well as on television. But other sports, including golf, tennis and auto racing, have also seen dramatic increases in their prize money, as well. This research focuses on team sports, however, as there have been more studies about salaries in this segment of the athletic industry. Traditionally, salaries in team sports have been portrayed as a contest between the l