Use in anateur & professional sports. Motivation. Tests for detecting drug use. Development of new drugs. 2000 Olympic Games.
I. Introduction Athletes are always striving to be the best and so are always looking for ways to improve their performance. When they have... more
I. Introduction Athletes are always striving to be the best and so are always looking for ways to improve their performance. When they have exhausted all regular means, such as specialized training, personalized diets, a regular workout, and a healthy lifestyle, the often feel they need a little something more to give them the edge. This is when they are tempted to turn to drugs for that extra boost which will take them to the top. Often, drug-taking by athletes is coerced by coaches whose careers may depend on having the winning team. In professional sports, and particularly in the Olympic games, the pressure to win is overwhelming to many, and they succumb to the temptation of a little extra help. The drugs used vary depending on the type of sport being
Use by professional & amateur athletes. Scope of problem; effects (performance enhancing & harmful).
The International Olympic Committee banned the use of anabolic steroids in 1976, and the American College of Sports Medicine produced a study in 1984... more
The International Olympic Committee banned the use of anabolic steroids in 1976, and the American College of Sports Medicine produced a study in 1984 that examined the use of anabolic steroids. The study found that anabolic steroids contributed to increased body weight and could increase muscular strength in some athletes under proper conditions. The American college of Sports Medicine condemned the use of these drugs. Anabolic steroid use is associated with a variety of toxic effects, from adverse effects on the liver to effects on the male reproductive system (Dyment & Goldberg, 1989, 127). However, professional athletes and young athletes in high school and college are still using anabolic steroids as well. The scope of the problem is considerable. It is estimated that over one million Americans, half of them adolescents, use
Use by bodybuilders, purpose, physical & psychological effects.
STEROIDS (ANABOLIC) Introduction The popular usage of anabolic steroids makes necessary the study of their effects physically and... more
STEROIDS (ANABOLIC) Introduction The popular usage of anabolic steroids makes necessary the study of their effects physically and psychologically. Study results indicate more than minor psychological changes in personality are found with AAS use. These effects can border on dangerousness, with demonstrations of aggressive and violent behavior, and need to be further investigated. Article Summary Cooper, Noakes, Dunne, Lambert, and Rochford (1996) studied the prevalence of abnormal personality traits found in chronic users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). One of the authors became a participant-observer in a group of body builders. The experimental group were twelve body builders using high doses AAS
Evolution in 1980s-90s. Legal & labor-management issues, examples, punishment, types of drugs.
Drug abuse in professional sports became a hot-button issue in the early 1980s, as several celebrated cases helped focus attention on the topic. This... more
Drug abuse in professional sports became a hot-button issue in the early 1980s, as several celebrated cases helped focus attention on the topic. This coincided with society’s changing attitudes about drugs as America moved from the lax 1970s to the more conservative 1980s. The major pro sports leagues in the United States responded by implementing drug control programs, which have largely succeeded in removing the topic from the headlines, or at least pushing it to the back pages. This paper will examine the drug testing of professional athletes, from the contentious first steps in the early 1980s until today, where concern over performance enhancing drugs has refocused the effort away from traditional illegal substances. Pro sports leagues derive their power to test athletes for drugs from collective bargaining agreements and the leagues’ by-
Argues for mandatory testing, sets guidelines for effective testing.
MANDATORY DRUG TESTING IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS Introduction Should mandatory drug testing be used in professional sports? This paper... more
MANDATORY DRUG TESTING IN PROFESSIONAL SPORTS Introduction Should mandatory drug testing be used in professional sports? This paper presents several arguments in favor of an affirmative answer to this question. Also discussed are factors that can deter mandatory drug testing programs from achieving those goals, purposes and objectives which provide reason for their use. Arguments Favoring Mandatory Drug Testing In Professional Sports Several arguments support mandatory drug testing of professional athletes. One of these is that mandatory drug testing would help to prevent athletes from suffering the physical long-term consequences of drug-taking by bringing drug
Examines reaction required for synthesis & alteration of pharmacological potential & metabolic functioning.
The Hydroxylation of Steroids Three major classes of steroids include sterols, steroid hormones, and bile acids. Perhaps the most important... more
The Hydroxylation of Steroids Three major classes of steroids include sterols, steroid hormones, and bile acids. Perhaps the most important sterol, cholesterol, serves as the precursor of both steroid hormones and bile acids. The synthesis of these compounds requires hydroxylation reactions. In addition, steroid-like substances such as vitamin D also undergo hydroxylation reactions. Many of these reactions are performed by the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The many different forms of cytochrome P450 oxidize a wide variety of substrates. Moreover, in recent years, it has become apparent that many of these reactions exhibit remarkable regio- or stereoselectivity. For the most part, hydroxylation serves to increase the polarity of the rather hydrophobic steroids. By increasing their aqueous solubility, the hydroxyl
Legal analysis. Mandatory tests, privacy rights, 4th Amendment issues, state vs. federal conflict, urinalysis, court decisions.
Drug Testing of Athletes and the Law This paper will discuss the legal issues involved in the mandatory drug testing of athletes. The first... more
Drug Testing of Athletes and the Law This paper will discuss the legal issues involved in the mandatory drug testing of athletes. The first part of the paper will examine the issue of state action with regard to federal constitutional protections. The second part of the paper will discuss the privacy issues arising out of the Fourteenth Amendment. The third part of the paper will look at the issue of search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment. The last part will briefly discuss state constitutional law concerning privacy. The controversy over the mandatory testing for drugs in sports concerns both types of athletes, professional and amateur. As will be seen, courts have treated professional athletes as employees who have agreed to forego certain rights, since they have signed employment contracts which often provide for drug testing. Amat
Purpose, effects, history, manufacture, medical uses, dangers, official banning, testing.
This paper will be concerned with the history of steroids in sports. Anabolic steroids are drugs which are designed to "artificially promote muscle... more
This paper will be concerned with the history of steroids in sports. Anabolic steroids are drugs which are designed to "artificially promote muscle development" (Donohoe & Johnson, 1987, p. 39). Such drugs contain either natural or synthetic varieties of the male hormone known as testosterone. This hormone, which is normally found in the male testes, is responsible for giving men greater strength and aggressiveness in comparison to women. In addition, testosterone contributes to other male characteristics of the body, such as facial hair. By contrast, women carry a hormone in their bodies known as estrogen, which is responsible for the development of the breasts, among other things. By taking steroids, both male and female athletes have discovered that they can dramatically increase their body size and strength. This is obviously an