Reviews the period of history known as "The Golden Age of Islam," from the 7th through the 12th centuries, when Islam was the major force in the Mediterranean region & the Christian world was in the Dark Ages.
Islam developed into a major force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean region from the seventh to the twelfth centuries. It became so again... more
Islam developed into a major force in the Middle East and the Mediterranean region from the seventh to the twelfth centuries. It became so again under the direction of the Ottoman Turks from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. The first period was the Golden Age of Islam, an age which ended as the Islamic world passed into an extended period of decline. But this decline did not mean the extinction of the core beliefs of Islam. A resurgence would come about after several centuries of retreat and seeming dormancy in the Islamic world. A number of reasons can be offered for the retreat of Islam during this interim period; among them are the military defeat in Spain, the invasion by the Mongols and the Tartars, the burning of the library in Baghdad, and the rise of the Ottomans as a military and political force. Further than these reasons, however, is the
Examines concept & practice of Zkhat (the practice of giving to the needy) & its inclusion as basic tenet of Islam, focusing on its role in development of Saudi Arabia.
Most cultures have a tradition of encouraging charity and generosity, of enjoining those who have enough to give to those who do not. Most cultures... more
Most cultures have a tradition of encouraging charity and generosity, of enjoining those who have enough to give to those who do not. Most cultures tell their children cautionary tales about what happens to those who do not give to the needy. In legends throughout the world and across the ages one can be pretty sure that the poor stranger who asks for only a crust of bread and a corner of a stable to rest in and is refused will turn out to be an angel or other powerful creature. Islam, and predominantly Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia, has formalized this generally held human inclination towards charity. While Christians are told how Mary and Joseph were turned away again and again out of the lack of charity, it is Moslems who have incorporated the importance of giving as one of the five essential elements of their religion--just as those Chris
Social, religious & familial roles, conduct, rights & obligations, sexuality, protective vs, punitive aspects, salvation, as set forth in Islamic Scriptures.
Women and the Koran Introduction As Islam has become more familiar to the world's people, one of the focuses of the West has been on the... more
Women and the Koran Introduction As Islam has become more familiar to the world's people, one of the focuses of the West has been on the position of women within Islamic societies. There has been much criticism of the constraints on women that have resulted from religious beliefs and practice. However, the countries which have a majority of Islamic adherents vary widely in their practices. It is not always clear what social practices result from cultural tradition and which practices emerge from the Koran and Islamic tradition. The intent in the following pages is to explore the rights and obligations of women in Islam as set forth in the Koran.
Examines ways Islamic countries can add to security & peace of world. Obstacles, religious divisions, economics, politics, spirituality, war, fundamentalism, public vs. private sectors, banking, difference with West.
HOW ISLAMIC SOCIETIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BETTER WORLD ORDER Introduction This research addresses the... more
HOW ISLAMIC SOCIETIES IN THE MIDDLE EAST CAN CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BETTER WORLD ORDER Introduction This research addresses the issue of how Islamic societies in the Middle East can contribute to a better world order. There are two major facets to this issue. The first facet of the issue concerns the character of any contribution that the Islamic societies of the Middle East can make to a better world order. The second facet of the issue revolves around the obstacles that the Islamic societies in the Middle East must overcome before they can make a contribution to a better world order. The findings of this research are presented within a framework of these two major facets of the overall issue of how Islamic societies in the Middle East can contribute to a better w
Examines how organizations contributed to stability and/or change in Islamic society, militarization, role of elites, schisms & sects, role of Sufis & Ottomans.
IMPACT OF MUSLIM SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS: 1200-1400 This essay discusses how Muslim social and religious organizations contributed to... more
IMPACT OF MUSLIM SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS: 1200-1400 This essay discusses how Muslim social and religious organizations contributed to stability and/or change during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. A variety of such institutions played an important role in promoting the Islamicization of society which in general had a stabilizing effect by filling vacuums created by the turnover and militarization of political leadership and the destruction of traditional political, economic and cultural elites which occurred during these centuries. Some of the schismatic movements within Islam accelerated its fragmentation with different Muslim organizations contributing to the ascendancy of some Islamic sects over others and in some areas to a weakening of central authority.
ISLAMIC STATES AND RULERSHIP IN 13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES This research paper discusses the most important developments in the nature of Islamic... more
ISLAMIC STATES AND RULERSHIP IN 13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES This research paper discusses the most important developments in the nature of Islamic states and rulership during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (1200-1400 A.D.). By 1200 the great Arab expansion and consolidation of Muslim imperial rule which had begun in the 7th century had peaked and receded under the pressure of external military threats from the West and Central Asia and the effects of internal processes of political fragmentation and decay. During the succeeding two centuries, that process of disintegration continued, even accelerated largely in response to the invasions of the Crusaders and the Mongols, but the first steps were taken toward the reunification of portions of the Islamic world on a new basis. That new basis varied considerably
Examines historical relationship among Islamic extremism, traditional Islamic thought & practice (based on Koran) & threat to human rights.
ISLAM AND HUMAN RIGHTS This research paper discusses the relationship among modern Islamic militancy, or fundamentalist movements, traditional... more
ISLAM AND HUMAN RIGHTS This research paper discusses the relationship among modern Islamic militancy, or fundamentalist movements, traditional Islamic thought and practice and the preservation of basic human rights in Islamic nations. In the second half of the 20th century, and particularly since the 1970s, a broad revival of Islamic traditions, which encompasses many disparate groups, has gathered momentum in the Middle East, North Africa and other Muslim lands, overthrowing some Muslim governments and threatening many others. Its more radical elements have advocated and engaged in practices such as airplane hijackings, car bombings, kidnapping and torture of hostages, political assassinations and other forms of terrorism. In the Muslim nations in which they have come to power, Iran
Examines relationship between religious doctrine & social ethics based on standards for conduct (prayer, purity, honesty), rewards for virtuous & punishment for wicked.
INTRODUCTION A connection exists between religious doctrine and social ethics in the Holy Qur'an because one of the goals of Islam is the... more
INTRODUCTION A connection exists between religious doctrine and social ethics in the Holy Qur'an because one of the goals of Islam is the establishment of a holy, organized society. Ideally, this society would be based on eternal principles of righteousness and fair dealing, cleanliness and sobriety, honesty and helpfulness. The moral code in the Qur'an is an attempt to put these principles into concrete form, to create a complete system of religion that suits the times and circumstances, and the varying needs of the average individual. The laws governing human conduct in the Qur'an define both social and economic justice, and the pursuit of a good life in society. The Qur'anic code of social ethics sets forth spiritual guidelines regarding lawful and unlawful actions, and rewards for
Political & social history of Islamic sect. Schism with Sunnis, cultural & religious identity, fragmentation, impact in India, massacres, leadership, persecution.
SHIISM IN PAKISTAN This research traces the political and social history of the Shiite Muslims in Pakistan. For many centuries, the Shiites, as... more
SHIISM IN PAKISTAN This research traces the political and social history of the Shiite Muslims in Pakistan. For many centuries, the Shiites, as a minority Muslim sect, have maintained a distinct cultural and religious identity in the parts of India which are now in Pakistan, despite opposition from the dominant Sunni elite and schisms within their ranks. With some notable exceptions, the Shiites have been a negligible political influence. In modern Pakistan, serious communal strife has erupted between extreme Sunni and Shiite elements, which reflect political instability and centrifugal forces which have polarized Pakistani politics. Origins of the Sunni-Shiite Schism in Islam According to Blood (124), Muslims account for 97 percent of Pakistan's population of 140 million people, of which 77 percent