Activities of the agency. Its main role of determining interest rates. Methods used by the Federal Reserve to determine the rate at which banks themselves borrow money; direct and indirect mechanisms. Involvement of the Federal Reserve in microeconomic issues that impact macroeconomic effects. Keynesian fiscal policy as tool of economic management.
THE FEDERAL RESERVE From Microeconomics to Macroeconomics and Back Introduction: The Federal Reserve carries out a broad range of... more
THE FEDERAL RESERVE From Microeconomics to Macroeconomics and Back Introduction: The Federal Reserve carries out a broad range of activities, many of which have no direct connection to national economic policy and little impact on individual consumers or businesses. Its activities that do shape economic policy, and have an impact on the economic lives of the public, have primarily to do with determining interest rates. So prominent has this role become in recent decades that "the Fed" has come to be widely regarded as the primary shaper of national economic policy. The following discussion will consider and evaluate the way in which the Federal Reserve influences the economy through management of interest rates. National or macroe
Role of the FDA in the regulation of health. Historical origins of the agency's legislative powers and duets. Its operations and impact. FDA power over approval or rejection of a new drug or device, and life or death consequences if approval is delayed. Effect of delay on drug industry costs. Politicization of FDA operations.
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION This research paper summarizes and discusses the role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in... more
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION This research paper summarizes and discusses the role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the regulation of health, the historical origins of its legislative powers and duties, its operations and their impact as well as identifying some areas of current controversy. FDA emerged in the post-World War II period as an extremely powerful federal regulatory agency, whose expansion has been episodic --in response to public health scandals and emergencies -- but nonetheless steady largely as a result of technological advances. FDA regulation of drugs, medical devices and food has an enormous impact on research and development, manufacturing, marketing, consumption and general health standards in the American economy. Because of the breadth of its impact, many of
History of fire service in America. The Colonial period. Initiation of fire wardens. Use of bucket brigades to put out fires. Benjamin Franklin's Union Fire Company and the concept of municipal fire fighting. Timeline of the development of technology, such as the fire hose. Cites a few of America's deadliest fires. Long quotations.
History of Fire Service in America Introduction In 1999, Mother Earth magazine published a long, historical article concerning fire, and... more
History of Fire Service in America Introduction In 1999, Mother Earth magazine published a long, historical article concerning fire, and man’s use and abuse of it. It is such an exceptional analysis that it deserves to be quoted at the beginning of this essay, since it sums up all of what we will be saying. Fire, by its nature, puts people and places into motion. Cultivation is a kind of colonization, and agriculture proved a hardy traveler. It needed for its tool kit only something with which to slash and something with which to cast sparks. If the farmer also had livestock, so much the better; hoof and tooth were as powerful as ax and harrow. Flocks and herds replaced the megafauna that had ea
Centers on agency's activities after 9/11. Creation and development of the Secret Service. Its original, narrow role regarding the monetary system. Expansion of its functions. Executive protection duty. Examines events of September 11, 2001. Passage of the sweeping anti-terrorist Patriot Act. Creation of a national cyber threat response and reporting system. Secret Service working with other government agencies.
The Secret Service After September 11, 2001 Introduction This paper logically falls into three sections. Part One will deal with the... more
The Secret Service After September 11, 2001 Introduction This paper logically falls into three sections. Part One will deal with the United States Secret Service from its inception until September 11, 2001. Part Two will deal with September 11, 2001, and how that terrible day challenged the Secret Service like it had never been challenged before. Part Three will examine some of the ways in which the Secret Service has changed since that fateful day. Part One: Development of the Secret Sevice The Secret Service was created in 1865 as a federal law enforcement agency within the Treasury Department. It derives its legal authority from Title 18, United States Code, Section 3056. It was established for the express purpose of stopping counterfei
The bureaucratic process. Examines the convoluted and vague nature of enacting laws, standards and regulations. Uses example of the Bush administration's disapproving the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ergonomics standard. Elimination of the OSHA program via a Federal Register notice that OSHA failed to include costs of the program. OSHA and politics. Recommendations OSHA should develop new ergonomic standards that would be more acceptable.
THE FEDERAL REGISTER On May 23, 2000, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published a notice in the Federal Register... more
THE FEDERAL REGISTER On May 23, 2000, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published a notice in the Federal Register informing the public that despite eight years of analyzing the economic impact of its proposed Ergonomics Program rule, it had failed to include the costs of the program for state and local governments (Wilson 2000 p. 1). So, while it was estimated that the cost of the program would increase enormously, the whole point is now moot, due to the Federal Register #66:20403, which eliminates the program. On March 20, 2001, President George W. Bush signed a joint resolution of Congress disapproving OSHA’s ergonomics standard and, at the same time, pledging to find a solution to ergonomic-related problems affecting the nation’s work force. The basic OSHA ergonomics progra
Compares U.S. & Western European publically supported schemes. History & development of each system. Social welfare issues & approaches. Budget implications. 1 Figures.
SOCIAL SECURITY/RETIREMENT SYSTEMS: COMPARING USA & WESTERN EUROPE Introduction Publicly supported social security and retirement system... more
SOCIAL SECURITY/RETIREMENT SYSTEMS: COMPARING USA & WESTERN EUROPE Introduction Publicly supported social security and retirement system programs in the United States (USA) are compared with such programs in major Western European nations. The two terms, “social security” and “retirement system,” are used because publicly supported retirement systems are referred to differently in different countries. Privately supported retirement schemes are not the focus of this review, although such schemes are mentioned where relevant to the issues addressed in this review. The information for this comparison of publicly supported social security and retirement system programs in the USA and major We
Discusses the nature of the Postal Service as a semi-privatized authority. Details the problems that arise from this unique management structure & the competition from other delivery services & new communication technology.
The U.S. Postal Service occupies a unique position in the government and in the business world. The Post Office was once a department of the U.S.... more
The U.S. Postal Service occupies a unique position in the government and in the business world. The Post Office was once a department of the U.S. Government and was operated as a government entity entirely. In 1970 Congress changed this, believing that a semi-privatized structure would enable the Postal Service (as it would then be called) better to function and to develop alternative management methods. However, the Postal Service remains a government entity in most respects. The Postal Service is overseen by the Postal Rate Commission (Carson, 1985, p. 584). The rate commission can recommend rate increases for the Postal Service, but Congress has the final say. Rate increases have been levied by the Postal Service about every three years since it was created by Congress in 1970. The Postal Service has more than 750,000 employees today, and labor
Overview of U.S. central bank. History, process, purpose, effects, leadership.
The Federal Reserve is one of the two most important central banks in the world, along with the Bank of Japan. As a central bank, it is charged with... more
The Federal Reserve is one of the two most important central banks in the world, along with the Bank of Japan. As a central bank, it is charged with steering the monetary policies of the U.S. economy. There is considerable disagreement about the effectiveness of the Federal Reserve in pursuing this mission, and there are also different theories offered as to how a central bank can be structured best to be effective.
The Federal Reserve System was formed by an act of Congress in 1913 and was to function as a central bank for the government and the people of the United States. In these functions, the Federal Reserve remains one of the most powerful institutions in American society, influencing the growth of the money supply, affecting interest rates, and playing a large roll in the pace and direction of spending by every citizen and every business
Background, functions, how FRB forms & carries out monetary policy, effects on economy. Charts.
Introduction The media pays close attention to interest rates, noting when the Federal Reserve Board's Open Market Committee meets, and the stock... more
Introduction The media pays close attention to interest rates, noting when the Federal Reserve Board's Open Market Committee meets, and the stock and bond markets react to real or anticipated changes in interest rates. Yet many consumers do not understand the interest rates discussed by the Fed and the media; what consumers do appreciate is that many mortgages and other loan rates are based on these figures. This research explores how the Federal Reserve conducts monetary policy, and examines the monetary policy of the last several years.
Background The Fed's mission is to protect the integrity of the nation's money by providing a healthy banking and financial system that is consistent w
Mars Pathfinder - Generating Useful Data and Goodwill
The Mars Pathfinder Mission was an extremely successful venture, which has boosted... more
Mars Pathfinder - Generating Useful Data and Goodwill
The Mars Pathfinder Mission was an extremely successful venture, which has boosted the NASA Discovery Program and planet exploration in general. The data collected delivered some interesting surprises, but has contributed to our knowledge about the planet Mars and created basis for further study. The Mars Pathfinder mission was the second launch in the NASA Discovery Program. Missions falling under this umbrella are of short duration, three years or less, and relatively low cost at 150 million dollars. The specific mission of the Mars Pathfinder was primarily to provide an engineering demonstration of the key technologies and concepts which will eventually be used in future missions. The mission was to demonstrate a low-