Discusses theorists from sociology and political science. How they complement each other. The sociological model that posits organizations have usurped the power from individuals' individuals & societal interests. The political science model of applying conflict theory to world conflicts; role of peacekeeping. Common intervention strategies of both groups of theorists.
With their objectives of addressing human problems and finding solutions, both the disciplines of sociology and political science share common... more
With their objectives of addressing human problems and finding solutions, both the disciplines of sociology and political science share common theoretical approaches. The goals of conflict theory are to address the repression and exploitation of people by social organizations and overcome these problems by creating an alternative paradigm for genuine interaction (Young, 1975). While conflict theorists from the disciplines of sociology and political science share this fundamental objective, they deal with this issue on a different level and scope. Sociologists are concerned with individuals’ interaction with society. Political scientists are interested in the relationships between larger entities such as social organizations and states. From the sociological perspective, the conflict theory is
Discusses how the inalienable human rights were destroyed. Hannah Arendt's views on the topic. Her concept of "rightlessness" that occurred in the mid-20th Century when Jews, marginal and stateless people were lumped in one group and deprived of their right to belong to a community. The loss of a polity and human dignity.
THE END OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN Hannah Arendt is most famous for a comment she made when covering the trial of Adolf Eichman, a Nazi war... more
THE END OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN Hannah Arendt is most famous for a comment she made when covering the trial of Adolf Eichman, a Nazi war criminal. She said he represented “the banality of evil”. Evil, in her lifetime was hardly quite that easy to explain. Maybe that is one reason she is so pessimistic about Man in general and the rights he either deserves or earns. After all, there surely was not a more hideous example of Man’s inhumanity to Man than what happened to million of Jews in Europe- who were deported and most killed for no reason other than that they were Jews. The Nazis gave it a fancy name: “Racial cleansing”. Of course, there are still those who believe it never happened, or never happened to that great extent, or was no worse than what the Boers did in South Africa, the Japanese did in China, or what the conquistadors did
Cites social, political, economic & artistic accomplishments of the decade. Long-term impact of the 1917 Russian Revolution & growth of power of the Soviet Union. World War I and its effects. Emigration to the U.S. of European immigrants. The Lost Generation. Post war prosperity in the U.S. Effect of Stock Market Crash.
The issue of which decade should be considered the more influential creates a dilemma, for the 1980s are simply too recent to be judged properly,... more
The issue of which decade should be considered the more influential creates a dilemma, for the 1980s are simply too recent to be judged properly, while the influence of the period from 1910 to 1920 is much more apparent and clearly reached far. The two decades are related primarily because the years between them constitute the lifespan of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union came into existence with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and ended with the breakup of the union in 1989. We know what effect the founding of the Soviet Union had on the next seventy years of history and on much of the world, while the consequences of the breakup are only beginning to be discerned and have only had a decade to make any difference at all. By any measure, socially, politically, economically, and artistically, the period from 1910 to 1920 was certainly more
Examines changes in the definition of the principle of utility. Compares Jeremy Bentham's theory of utility to modern versions. Discusses increase in happiness element, right action, intrinsic & extrinsic (instrumental) value, Consequentialism & Utilitarianism. Concepts of "right" and "wrong;" Equality & Utilitarianism. " Cites a number of criticisms of the theory of Utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism Introduction: What is Utility? The definition of the core of the theory -- the principle of utility -- has changed over the... more
Utilitarianism Introduction: What is Utility? The definition of the core of the theory -- the principle of utility -- has changed over the years, such that the modern version has a number of significant differences from that given by Jeremy Bentham: By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness (Bentham, 2000, p.11). The modern definition is effectively this: An action is right if it produces as much or more of an
Discusses four of his works. Contends Rousseau's political philosophy was motivated more by his passions and emotions than by reason and logic. Rousseau's concept of government, direct participation of general public in the governmental process, his negative view of the arts and sciences. Emphasis on man's natural state. Concept of the general will. Social contract.
This research study will provide an analysis of the political theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau by discussing four of his works: Discourse of the... more
This research study will provide an analysis of the political theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau by discussing four of his works: Discourse of the Sciences and the Arts (1750), Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (1754), Discourse on Political Economy (1755), and his seminal work of political theory, On the Social Contract published in 1762. As these works illustrate, Rousseau's political philosophy was motivated more by his passions and emotions than by reason and logic. He was more interested in describing what the ideal state should be than detailing a structure of how this could be achieved. To Rousseau, government was a necessity for the daily execution of civil law, but the direct participation of all members of society was equally important. Rousseau's philosophy also reflects his status in society; he was the first modern political writer who was not a mem
Contrasting positions. The universality of rights and dignity of human beings. Human rights as an item of contemporary Western and Capitalist ideology. Based on essays in the book HUMAN RIGHTS: CONCEPTS, CONTESTS, CONTINGENCIES. Prominence of the subject of human rights in international affairs. Discusses various essays that deal with the rights of indigenous communities, cultural choice, evolving societies.
HUMAN RIGHTS, UNCERTAIN BOUNDARIES
Human rights are inherently universal, based on the dignity of human beings, and binding on all... more
HUMAN RIGHTS, UNCERTAIN BOUNDARIES
Human rights are inherently universal, based on the dignity of human beings, and binding on all governments or other exercisers of authority at all times. Alternatively, "human rights" is an item of contemporary Western and capitalist ideology, useful primarily as a stick with which to beat troublesome Third World states when they offend Western sensibility or (especially) Western interests. These contrasting positions embody the international dialogue regarding human rights, at least on the level that gets reported in the mass media. The essays in Human Rights: Concepts, Contests, Contingencies, edited by Austin Sarat and
Examines views of Hobbes and Rousseau. Hobbes' belief that religion is a part of ruling a people; State and Church as the same men. Rousseau's belief in the separation of Church and State; man's law different from divine law. Argument of who has the final authority to rule. Applies concepts to current time period.
RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT AS SEEN BY HOBBES AND ROUSSEAU Hobbes and Rousseau have very different views when it comes to religion and politics.... more
RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT AS SEEN BY HOBBES AND ROUSSEAU Hobbes and Rousseau have very different views when it comes to religion and politics. Hobbes says “It is true that God is king of all the earth; yet may He be king of a peculiar and chosen nation” (Hobbes 1956 82). Rousseau, however, disagrees and criticizes Hobbes: “He should have seen that the dominating spirit of Christianity was incompatible with his system” (Rousseau 222). Rousseau says that God or gods were in charge of nations in olden times. God was King and President. But, politics and religion don’t mingle very well. Rousseau believes in the separation of Church and state. Hobbes believes religion is a part of ruling a people. Rousseau sees religion as being the state in historical times. Not today. “At first men had no other kings but the gods, and no other govern
Compares theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke. Type of society each man wants to create. Premise that equality is rooted in the state of nature and a civil society is needed to be secure. Question of how much freedom an individual should give up.
The main factor that separates the social contract theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke has to do with the society each man wants to... more
The main factor that separates the social contract theories of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke has to do with the society each man wants to create and the obstacles each man wants to avoid. Rousseau was responding to the terrors of the French Revolution when he wrote his social contract theory. Locke wrote in less horrible conditions, but he was concerned with the King having too much power. Locke's social contract theory gives more freedom to the people than Rousseau does. This may be because Rousseau was more concerned with preventing another bloody revolution and less about political rights. For Locke, equality is rooted in the state of nature. Individuals are equal in the state of nature, but the state of war in nature means that a civil society is necessary for there to be security. To Locke, individuals who move from nature to society willingly give up some of their freedom to the leader of the society. In return, they get back freedom from the war of nature and protection of property. Up to that point, there is much more similarity than differences between Locke
Differences in concepts of citizenship. Conceptions of and attitudes toward law. U.S. as a nation of immigrants. Common citizens. Yemen as a society of ancient peoples with local traditions. U.S. as older nation-state. British Colonial rule of Yemen, and pre-Colonial Yemen. Yemen political independence in 1990. Yemen nationalism.
CITIZENSHIP IN TWO CULTURES A Comparison of the United States and Yemen
Introduction and Background Yemen possesses one of the... more
CITIZENSHIP IN TWO CULTURES A Comparison of the United States and Yemen
Introduction and Background Yemen possesses one of the world's ancient civilizations. The Queen of Saba, or "Sheba," who visited King Solomon three thousand years ago, came from what today is Yemen. The Yemenis became early converts to Islam, in the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad, and Yemeni merchants helped to spread the Muslim faith as far as modern Indonesia and beyond ("Culture," no date). During most of that time, Yemen remained independent of foreign rule -- indeed, right up until the last century, no foreign
James Madison's theories of government & democracy & drafting U..S. Constitution. Separation of powers, checks & balances. First Amendment. Free speech & the Internet.
American Government: The Madisonian Model Introduction Almost immediately after the Revolutionary War ended, the members of the Continental... more
American Government: The Madisonian Model Introduction Almost immediately after the Revolutionary War ended, the members of the Continental Congress faced what one historian called the "unfinished agenda" of determining precisely what form of government would rule the newly-independent colonies (Binder, Online). Merely dividing power between Congress and the states under the 1781 Articles of Confederation had failed to create a government that could cope with all the issues of a growing new nation, in particular because the powers delegated to Congress under the Articles prevented it from discharging its duties. For example, although Congress was responsible for national defense, foreign relations and development of the West, the Articles did not designate the nature of its leadership or grant it the power to tax (Binder