History of the headdress of Saudi males. Selection of clothing and accessories of Saudi men shaped by a history of adherence to traditional values, customs and norms. Use of head coverups for protection from extreme heat and cold. Ghutra as a symbol of the heritage of the Saudi. Describes the headdress.
The Saudi Ghutra
For Saudi Arabian males, the selection of clothing and accessories is very much shaped by a long and rich history in which... more
The Saudi Ghutra
For Saudi Arabian males, the selection of clothing and accessories is very much shaped by a long and rich history in which adherence to traditional values, customs, and norms is prominent (Ross, 1981). Saudi males wear a multi-part headdress or head covering that can be dated to Persian antecedents observed as early as 700 B.C. and employing soft materials able to provide protection to the head and face from climatic vicissitudes.
Ryder (The functional history of clothing – 1, 2000) has pointed out that there are two different strategies available to protect people against the effects of heat in tropical or desert climates. One is to wear as little as possible as is the case with the Dinkas of the Sudan. The alternative approach is to wear multiple layers of
Examines the work of the Iranian-Islamic physican and philosopher. His life and accomplishments in 10th-11th Century Iran. His precocious childhood. His early studies. His substantial contributions to medicine, many of which became part of Western practice. The instability of his later life. His place as the finest physician of the classical Arabic world.
Although his name is relatively unknown in the West, Avicenna – or Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina to give him his Arabic name – made... more
Although his name is relatively unknown in the West, Avicenna – or Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina to give him his Arabic name – made substantial contributions to medicine, many of which would find their way into Western practice and remain influential well through the Renaissance and into the first years of the modernist world. This paper examines the work and enduring contributions of this 10th- and 11th-century Iranian Islamic philosopher and physician. Born near Bukhoro (now in Uzbekistan) as the son of a government official, Avicenna studied medicine and philosophy in his natal town. Because his parents’ house was a meeting place for intellectuals, he was able to profit from the teachings of (and conversations with) masters in many different disciplines. He was surrounded from birth with the learning and the questions of hi
Discussion of the Middle East in the 1950s. Formation of the Baghdad Pact, a military alliance to defend the Middle East. U.S. response to the pact. The Eisenhower Doctrine & its concerns regarding Communist penetration into the Arab world. Details the major poiints of the Doctrine. Economic interests of the U.S. in the area.
The United States in the 1950s worked to draw the Middle Eastern countries into a broader military scheme that would encompass the region as a whole,... more
The United States in the 1950s worked to draw the Middle Eastern countries into a broader military scheme that would encompass the region as a whole, but this proved impossible as the Arab world was reluctant to enter into such an arrangement. In some areas in the North, the Soviet menace was ever present, and the United States turned her attention in this direction. The Baghdad Pact of 1955 was part of this effort and united in a military alliance three non-Arab countries (Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan), one Arab country (Iraq), and one Western country (Britain). The U.S. did not formally adhere in part out of fear that it would alienate forever the revolutionary regime in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab world, but American civil and military representatives were active on various committees of the Baghdad Pact organization.
Examines causes of Arab nationalism. Early Arab reolvts against the Ottomans; the Wahhabi revolt & others. Roots of Arab nationalism; Asabiyya. Ottomanism & self-determination. Muslim nationalism. "Young Turk" movement. Arab reaction to World War I. Allied policy. British alliance with Hussein. "Lawrence of Arabia." Pan-Arabism. Balfour Declaration. Treaties. Creation of the Middle East.
THE ARAB TRIBAL REVOLT OF WORLD WAR I AND ITS RESULT Introduction Few topics of study have generated as much heat as Arab nationalism. Few... more
THE ARAB TRIBAL REVOLT OF WORLD WAR I AND ITS RESULT Introduction Few topics of study have generated as much heat as Arab nationalism. Few peoples are as poorly understood as today's Arabs. Even deciding who is an Arab or defining what is meant by Arab nationalism can easily get scholars and students into trouble, with both the Arabs and their detractors. Arab feeling is strong, and it is likely to grow stronger in the years ahead. It is also sometimes bitter, due to some of the unhappy experiences of the Arabs in the early twentieth century (Coury, 1998, 24). The Arabs have not been united since the era of the High Caliphate, if indeed then. Furthermore, they have not ruled themselves from the time the Turks came into the region until quite
Discusses the situation in the Mideast. Contends that the national rights of Israel and Palestine should be supported by the international community. Recent history of the conflict. Oslo Accords and the peace process. Israeli confiscation of the West Bank. Attitude of Israeli's toward the Palestinians. Argues against U.S. unquestioning support of Israel.
INTRODUCTION: The majority of Americans have only become aware of the current state of affairs in the Middle East as a result of the terrorist... more
INTRODUCTION: The majority of Americans have only become aware of the current state of affairs in the Middle East as a result of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that happened September 11, 2001. And to a great extent, many of them see Israel as an ally of the United States in the war against terrorism, as the Israelis fight the Palestinians. Many believe the Israeli actions are merely a response to "acts of terrorism" by Palestinian suicide bombers. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The Middle East is still torn by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, as it has been since the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and the seven wars that have been fought since 1948. In the aftermath of the Coalition victory against Iraq in 1991, American prestige and influence was
Discusses impact of 9/11 on relations of the two countries. Common interests. Military threats and security. Role of oil. Background of U.S./ Saudi relations. Geopolitics of Saudi Arabia. The Gulf War. Role of Saudi Arabia in the Islamic world. Desire ot Saudi Arabia to balance power in the Gulf. Wahhabism. Osama bin Laden.
SAUDI ARABIA AND THE UNITED STATES SINCE STPTEMBER 11, 2001 INTRODUCTION: The United States has few more important partners in its war... more
SAUDI ARABIA AND THE UNITED STATES SINCE STPTEMBER 11, 2001 INTRODUCTION: The United States has few more important partners in its war against terrorism than the kingdom of Saudi Arabia - the most important oil-producing nation in the world, with twenty-five percent of known world oil reserves. Even more than during the Persian Gulf war when Saudi Arabia was directly threatened by Iraq, this new campaign will test the political, economic and military ties that have made America and Saudi Arabia uneasy allies (New York Times, 2001, 28). In the most basic terms, the common interests of the two countries boil down to U.S. access to a steady flow of oil in exchange for guaranteed security for Saudi Arabia from external military threats. There is a secondary American interest: over the
Importance of the Saudi leadership to the USA. Religious and political history of Arabia from 7th through 20th Century. The allegience of the Saudi State to the religious movement of Wahhabi Islam. Connection to al-Saud dynasty to Wahhabi radicalism. Politics of the Saudi royal family. Effect on the world.
SAUDI ARABIA: THE QUESTION OF LEADERSHIP INTRODUCTION: Ever since the discovery of massive oil deposits in the Arabian peninsula in the... more
SAUDI ARABIA: THE QUESTION OF LEADERSHIP INTRODUCTION: Ever since the discovery of massive oil deposits in the Arabian peninsula in the 1930s, the United States has been deeply involved with the politics of Saudi Arabia. That the world's most modern, secular, technological capitalist state would find it difficult to deal with a country that is under the control of an absolute monarchy that is beholden to a version of religion that seeks to maintain a social structure created in the 7th century A.D. means that there will always be tension, and that the question of who runs Saudia Arabia will be of crucial importance to American policy so long as Saudi Arabia sits on twenty-five percent of the world's known oil reserves and the United States does nothing domestically to wean its economy from dependence o
Discusses the views of the American public regarding Middle East Muslims. Growing media coverage of the area since 9/11. Focuses on a survey of participants expressing their perceptions. Lack of knowledge about Islamic people in the Middle East. Contends that the American media offers a biased perspective of Muslims. Ramifications for American society.
Since the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incident, the American public has been exposed to tremendous media coverage not only about Ground Zero, the... more
Since the September 11th, 2001 terrorist incident, the American public has been exposed to tremendous media coverage not only about Ground Zero, the terrorists, Osama bin Laden, but also Arabs, Muslims and the Islamic faith in general. Sixteen individuals aged over 21, with varying levels of education and ranging from Grammar School to Doctoral levels, also express their perceptions about Muslims who reside in the Middle East with respect to the September 11th attack. The first group of participants is professors affiliated with Northwestern University. All six participants of this group have Ph.D. degrees. Although he is not familiar with the practice of Islam in general, Dr. Gregory McGillen believes that Americans’ perception of the Muslims in the Middle East depends on their interest in the Middle East and its people and their
Examines violence and tensions of the area in 2001. Israel-Palestinian conflict. Background. The new intifada. Replacement of conflict resolution with crisis management as approach. Distrust on both sides of the conflict. Underlying problems. Uprisings and resistance. Mounting terrorism. Arafat's approach. Peres' approach. Role of the U.S. government. Sense of hopelessness.
THE MIDDLE EAST IN CRISIS: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? At no time since Israel was proclaimed a sovereign and independent state more than... more
THE MIDDLE EAST IN CRISIS: WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? At no time since Israel was proclaimed a sovereign and independent state more than half-a-century ago has the future of the Middle East looked so bleak and deadly. Since new violence erupted last October between Israel on the one hand and the Palestinians on the other, a new intifada has evolved on a sustained basis. Thus, crisis management has replaced conflict resolution as the prevailing approach for dealing with trouble in this chronic hot spot (Simon, 2001, p. 31). An underlying problem is the Palestinian unwillingness or inability to “abandon … its founding claim … that Palestinians displaced by Israel in 1948 be allowed to return home” (Zakaria 2001 2). Of course, Israel similarly has steadfastly refused to recognize the right
Discusses Islamic doctrine and the role of women. The Iranian Revolution and the lesser public role for women. Rise of fundamentalists. Pious women and gender-specific ideas of their place in Iranian society. Religious practices. Patriarchal view. Marginalization of women. Iranian women working in government agencies. Emergence of feminism. Shi'ia law and marriage.
Women, Islam and Iran The Iranian revolution created a government which has been characterized as modern, nationalist, and Islamic-centered and... more
Women, Islam and Iran The Iranian revolution created a government which has been characterized as modern, nationalist, and Islamic-centered and as one which relegates women to a lesser public role and has deprived them of their traditional influence over private family matters (Yaganeh, 1993). Islamic doctrine expressly regards certain matters such as participation in the educational system and family upbringing as women’s work. Islam also posits a major role for women in prayer and in transmitting the religious, moral, and ethical precepts of Islam itself to successive generations. However, one critic, Nahid Yeganeh (1993) has suggested that women’s status and their rights in the political, familial, and religious spheres have decreased since the Iranian revolution of 1979. T