Examines application of the theory. Goals as regulators of human behavior. The relationship between goal difficulty and performance. Its use in motivting workers to performance and productivity improvement. Goal-setting activities. Key steps in goal setting. Recommendations as to how more effective use of goals can be achieved. Implications for managers.
Goal Theory Goal theory holds that goals are important regulators of human behavior and posits a strong relationship between goal difficulty and... more
Goal Theory Goal theory holds that goals are important regulators of human behavior and posits a strong relationship between goal difficulty and performance, with harder goals resulting in a greater effort than easier goals (Martin & Manning, 1995). This report will examine goal theory and its use in motivating workers to performance and productivity improvements. It will examine goal-setting activities from an individual perspective and will offer recommendations as to how more effective use of goals can be achieved. Ivancevich (1998) says that goal setting is designed to improve an individual’s ability to set and achieve goals. Goals are the object of an action or what a person intends to accomplish. Goal setting theory was proposed initially by Edwin
Compares and constrasts the theoretical perspectives of management theorists Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor. Taylor's authoritarian style. Focus on relationship between mechanical improvement and efficient management leading to centralized control. Fayol's focus on management and the organization of functions. Top down organizational structure. Priorities of both men of efficiency and productivity.
INTRODUCTION: This study will compare and contrast the theoretical perspectives of management theorists Henri Fayol and Frederick Winslow Taylor. more
INTRODUCTION: This study will compare and contrast the theoretical perspectives of management theorists Henri Fayol and Frederick Winslow Taylor. The development of Taylor's theory of scientific management began with his first encounter with workers as an "executive trainee." That encounter reveals that his priorities were not with the worker, but instead with management. Taylor himself "associated" the encounter with the "beginning of scientific management." In this incident, Taylor sought to increase the productivity of the workers (specifically the machinists), a focus of most of his theory. He considered their output low and unacceptable, and a result of the failings of both the factory system and the work methods of workers. He fired some men, lowered others' wages, installed a piecework-based system
Analysis of the concept of "followership" as containing both leader and follower elements. The path-goal theory of management as an organizational model. Concept of situational leadership in which manager both leads and guides. Difference between a successful manager & an effective manager. Details of the followership theory of leadership & its current importance to companies.
ADOPTION OF FOLLOWERSHIP AS A MANAGEMENT STYLE Background Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson (1996) write a great deal about the concept of... more
ADOPTION OF FOLLOWERSHIP AS A MANAGEMENT STYLE Background Hersey, Blanchard and Johnson (1996) write a great deal about the concept of “followership” in which the terms “leader” and “follower” are not diametrically opposed concepts, but both exist as points along a continuum, and that the roles shift as the situation develops. In a way, this confirms the old Confucian analect that “As a teacher, by your students you are taught.” Some management schools, discussing the concept of situational leadership make use of an organizational model called “path-goal.” The path-goal theory of management suggests that it is the manager's primary task to both lead and guide, helping the workers achieve goals through the clear establishment of what is expected
Examines various strategies of ten different organizations (Coca-Cola, Walt Disney Co., Time-Warner, Johnson & Johnson and other real world companies). Analysis of principles & purpose of strategic management. Short-term planning and long-term goals. Establishing performance objectives. A strategic management model & the process by which companies develop & implement & execute their strategies.
Introduction When economies are healthy and businesses are doing well, it is easy for managers to become complacent and not pay attention to... more
Introduction When economies are healthy and businesses are doing well, it is easy for managers to become complacent and not pay attention to long-term direction. Healthy economic conditions can be forgiving of such inattention. When the economy changes and the business environment becomes more competitive, those companies which have established a tradition of long-term goals in conjunction with short-term planning are the companies which survive and even prosper. Companies which ignored that aspect of their business find that the increased competition for resources, customers and market share does not long tolerate poor or no planning. This research considers the strategic management model, and the various strategies employed by ten different organizations. Stra
Analyzes ten major theories. How to make effective decisions for the future. Four main phases to developing a systemic strategy for dealing with the future business world. Describes a fictional manufacturing and marketing company, and how the company could apply strategic management to help solve its problems.
DIVERSE PARADIGMS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT THEORY Introduction “A vision without a task is a dream; a task without a vision is drudgery; a... more
DIVERSE PARADIGMS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT THEORY Introduction “A vision without a task is a dream; a task without a vision is drudgery; a vision, with a task, is victory.” -- Goethe No fewer than ten essential models that have informed the science (and some may say “art”) of business strategy were capsulised recently in a Financial Times of London analysis thoughtfully entitled “Strategy, blind men and the elephant.” Its introduction bears quoting at some length, since it will also serve as the thematic guideline for this analysis. We are all like the blind men and the strategy
Concepts of business ethics. Assesses AOL Time Warner and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in relation to selected concepts of organizational theory and ethics. Uses Netscape as the external frame of reference company for the assessments. Strategic approaches of the organizations. Applies Porter's Competitive Strategies. Balanced Scorecard evaluation. Concept of cultural sensitivity.
ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND BUSINESS ETHICS: ASSESSING AOL TIME WARNER AND IBM Introduction This research assesses AOL Time Warner and... more
ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY AND BUSINESS ETHICS: ASSESSING AOL TIME WARNER AND IBM Introduction This research assesses AOL Time Warner and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in relation to selected concepts of organizational theory and business ethics. Netscape, now a wholly owned subsidiary of AOL Time Warner, serves as the external frame of reference company for the assessments of AOL Time Warner and IBM. Selected Concepts of Organizational Theory and Business Ethics Within the context of Strategy, Organizational Design, and Effectiveness, the concept providing the framework for the assessment of AOL Time Warner and IBM is Porter’s Competitive Strate
Examines various approaches. Their application to today's business environment. Scientific management theory of Frederick Taylor; use in traditional organizations, contingency approach, interdependency of personal and situational factors. Thematic apperception; personal needs. Herzberg's two-factor theory. Expectancy theory; worker motivation and rewards. Porter_Lawler model. Group decision making.
Organizational Development Introduction During the twentieth century, the dynamics that exist within individual organizations came to be... more
Organizational Development Introduction During the twentieth century, the dynamics that exist within individual organizations came to be studied, analyzed and evaluated. Over the course of that century, this analysis led to the conclusions that organizations can be managed in order to achieve specific goals, and that organizations have cultures and standards of behavior similar to the cultures of societies at large. Tools have developed that help managers and employees achieve these goals, and that help change cultures when those cultures no longer support the organization's mission. Even the relationship between manager and employee has changed over the last 100 years so that there is greater equity between the two in many organizations. This research considers various approaches to organ
Looks at respective effects on unit effectiveness of Japanese & American management styles.
SAMURAI VERSUS COWBOYS A Comparative Examination of Japanese and American Management Styles, and Their Respective Effects on Unit... more
SAMURAI VERSUS COWBOYS A Comparative Examination of Japanese and American Management Styles, and Their Respective Effects on Unit Effectiveness
Abstract It is widely recognized that Japanese and American styles of business management practice differ broadly across the range of supervisory style, decision-making, communications, management controls, and interdepartmental relations. These specific distinctions are rooted in the contrast between Japanese paternalism, which has sometimes been characterized as giving
Explores definition & nature of organizational culture, & suggests methods for managing it effectively.
Managing Organizational Culture Introduction The concept of organizational culture is a relatively new one. Organizational cultures, like... more
Managing Organizational Culture Introduction The concept of organizational culture is a relatively new one. Organizational cultures, like other human cultures, include particular types of artifacts, special values, and common beliefs and assumptions. In some respects, it is the culture that makes the organization a true organization rather than just a collection or randomly engaged people. It provides the defining characteristics that make organizations differ from each other, and the foundation for both success and failure organizationally. While organizational culture is, to some extent, organic, it is somewhat malleable and management needs to focus on those aspects of the culture which can be influenced and shaped. The focus in this paper is on the management of organizational culture, looking
Defines strategic planning, & examines ways in which it serves the needs of the organization.
Strategic planning is the process for making decisions and implementing those decisions in a way that serves the needs of the organization. The... more
Strategic planning is the process for making decisions and implementing those decisions in a way that serves the needs of the organization. The process of strategic planning involves a number of issues: 1) Strategic planning is a process for deciding in advance what is to be done, when, how, and by whom. 2) This is a continuous process involving the ongoing functions of information gathering, assessment, and the development of policy. 3) It is a means for assessing future trend and for preparing to meet those trends. 4) Strategic planning makes it possible to be ready for new opportunities and to avoid coming threats. Strategic planning is undertaken and implemented for both the l