Examines anti-American hatred of many Islamic States of the world. Offers various explanations as to why anti-American animosity has developed. The threat of modernity and secularization posed by the U.S. to Muslims. The Persian Gulf War. American support for Israel. View of Islamic fundamentalists and extremists that the U.S. is "Satan."
An Exploration of Muslim Animosity Toward the U.S. The events of September 11, 2001, served to confirm what American government officials and... more
An Exploration of Muslim Animosity Toward the U.S. The events of September 11, 2001, served to confirm what American government officials and many private citizens have long recognized: within the Islamic States of the world, there are many, many Muslims whose feelings toward the United States can only be described as hatred, contempt, and disgust. The question to be considered in this report is why this anti-American animosity has developed. Various explanations have been offered, among which are the belief that America has unfairly supported Israel and ignored the interests of the Palestinians (Sheler, 2001). Other explanations of this phenomenon have been discussed by Sultan Shahin (1995) who argues that Islam views the West as an excessively secular civilization in which genuine religious feeling
Examines the WTO agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). History of agreement. Issues involved: royalties, patents, trademarks, inventions. International agreements. Tie-in to GATT. Foreign trade. Quotas & protective tariffs. Controversy over WTO & TRIPS. Access to patented pharmaceuticals. Public imae of WTO. Gap between poor & rich countries.
This research examines the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). The research will set... more
This research examines the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). The research will set forth a brief history of how the agreement came into being and then discuss the major sections of the accord, as well as issue fronts that public scrutiny of it has produced, with a view toward forecasting possible lines of development. The origin of the World Trade Organization can be traced to two treaties negotiated in Paris, one in 1833 and another 50 years later. In 1833 the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property became the first treaty in history aimed at assisting creators of patentable industrial products of one signatory country in obtaining protection "for their intellectual creations" (WIPO, 2001) in the other signatory count
Analyzes the situation from 1973 to 2001. Posible solutions to problems created by drug and arms trafficking. Afghanistan black market economy (opium, heroin, arms) related to political & economic devastations. Civil unrest. Soviet invastion. U.S. backed revolt against Soviet rule. Drug eradication efforts. The Taliban. Impact of trafficking on other countries.
NARCOTICS AND ARMS TRAFFICKING IN AFGHANISTAN This research paper describes and analyzes drug and arms trafficking in Afghanistan since 1973,... more
NARCOTICS AND ARMS TRAFFICKING IN AFGHANISTAN This research paper describes and analyzes drug and arms trafficking in Afghanistan since 1973, places them in historical context, examines their effects outside of Afghanistan and discusses possible remedial solutions to the problems they have created. Over the past thirty years, Afghanistan has sustained itself largely from the proceeds of a clandestine or black market economy based on the production, processing and export of opium, heroin and other narcotic drugs and the smuggling of arms and other goods. These activities have developed out of the devastation, political fragmentation and economic dislocation produced by nearly thirty years of civil unrest and the Soviet invasion and ten year occupation of Afghanistan (1979-1989), and
Contends 1989 was a watershed year in international relations with the end of Cold War. Offers cultural & political theories incl. Postmodernism, liberalism & realism to help understand new (post Cold War) international acts.
International Crises Many theorists in the field of international relations maintain that 1989 was a watershed year. In fact, they argue that... more
International Crises Many theorists in the field of international relations maintain that 1989 was a watershed year. In fact, they argue that 1989 stands out as "a dramatic divide in contemporary history, in some respects comparable to the French Revolution two hundred years earlier" (Simensen, 1999, p. 391). Thus, Jarle Simensen asserts that the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War, and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union inaugurated a new era in international relations (Simensen, 1999, p. p. 3). The significance of the Cold War to the development of international relations cannot be overstated. In fact, Simensen notes that international relations as a subdiscipline of political science developed during the Cold War (1999, p. 395). On the other hand, the Persian Gulf War demonstrates that no long
Examines 2 books on subject: "ARAB & JEW" by David K. Shipler & "NATION AGAINST STATE" by Gideon Gottlieb. Problems, conflicts waged in name of nationhood.
David K. Shipler’s work, Arab and Jew, delves into the perceptions and stereotypes Arabs and Jews have of one another in Israel and... more
David K. Shipler’s work, Arab and Jew, delves into the perceptions and stereotypes Arabs and Jews have of one another in Israel and Israeli-controlled regions. He examines these relationships in three dimensions: first, the forces that contribute to aversion such as war, nationalism, terrorism, and religious absolutism; second, the catalogue of images, some unique to the Arab-Jew relationship, some similar to stereotypes between other groups; third, the complexities of interaction, ranging from cultural and religious affinity to the idealistic efforts of a few Jews and Arabs to span the gap of ignorance (Shipler 13). Gideon Gottlieb’s Nation Against State examines ethnic conflicts and the decline of sovereignty. He explains past failed approaches and develops instead innovative approaches for
Discussion of origins & evolution of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Describes NATO as linchpin in US-European defense structure since 1949. Analysis of individual members, their goals, & goals of the organization.
Introduction The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been a linchpin in the U.S.-European defense structure since its founding in... more
Introduction The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been a linchpin in the U.S.-European defense structure since its founding in 1949. The end of the Cold War has been hailed as a major shift in world political power and as evidence of a less dangerous international climate, and this has also called into question the need for the continuation of NATO, among other defense alliances. The founding of NATO was a major post-war accomplishment for the mutual defense of Europe and the North Atlantic region. Throughout its history, NATO has been almost as much a source of internal tension among members as it has been an effective defense tool. Yet, NATO is seen as perhaps the most successful defensive alliance in history and remains today the only truly functioning
Examines the linkage between a nation and the sovereign state. Argues that nationalism is more complex, often including group unity and ethnic identity.
REFLECTIONS ON NATIONALISM
Introduction What do we mean by "a nation," and what do we mean by nationalism? On the simplest level, we... more
REFLECTIONS ON NATIONALISM
Introduction What do we mean by "a nation," and what do we mean by nationalism? On the simplest level, we use "nation" as a synonym for a sovereign state. When we speak of the nations of the world, we mean its states; they are entities that are members of the United Nations, or that could be if they applied for admission and were admitted. Britain and Brazil are nations; Wales and the Kurds are not. People in the United States are perhaps more prone to use "nation" in this sense than others, because "state" has such as strong popular connotation of the states of the Union.
Focusing on Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, & Indonesia, questions whether economic development promotes democratization.
Economic Development and Democratization Introduction Early development theory held certain tenets to be truths about how development was to... more
Economic Development and Democratization Introduction Early development theory held certain tenets to be truths about how development was to proceed in countries that were not yet industrialized. The assumption was, for example, that the first priority was to create infrastructure, such as roads, dams, and airports, to support an industrial economy. Development theory has been refined, and in some instances changed, as the development process has proceeded in a number of different types of countries around the world. There are still some principles that are basic tenets of traditional development theory. One of these is the idea that population growth tends to fall as development increases and per capita income rises. Another is the belief that economic development promotes democratization. The focus in this paper is
Analysis of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War. French fear of Germany led to harsh terms; German bristling at the harsh terms led to the Second World War.
The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I , yet virtually none of the parties which signed this document were satisfied with the terms.... more
The Treaty of Versailles officially ended World War I , yet virtually none of the parties which signed this document were satisfied with the terms. The two bitterest enemies of the Great War, Germany and France, had suffered devastating losses as a result of four years of intense fighting across their shared borders. Their opposing viewpoints regarding how peace in Europe should be maintained were described in the book, Sources of the Western Tradition, Volume II: From the Renaissance to the Present, edited by Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden, and Theodore H. Von Laue (1995). As victors, the French demanded extreme measures of punishment against the Germans both for reasons of revenge and as a means of securing their territory from future threats of German invasion. The French were in large part motivated by the fact that the major
History of foreign & military relations between Japan & Soviet Union since World War II. Additional material on relations between the nations since the Soviet collapse & the rise of the new Russia.
INTRODUCTION Relations between Japan and the Soviet Union have been much affected by the strategic position of Japan. It is relatively near the... more
INTRODUCTION Relations between Japan and the Soviet Union have been much affected by the strategic position of Japan. It is relatively near the Atlantic coast of the old Soviet Union and current Russia. Japanese foreign policy has been conducted in terms of the geography of the country, with the four main islands of Japan standing off the coast of East Asia, near the peninsula of Korea, and surrounded by other islands, including the currently disputed Sakhalin and Kurile Islands to the north. Relations have shifted over the years, and Japan has drawn closer to the rest of the world as technology has improved: The power of Russia, China, and the United States and the policies of these countries toward Japan have changed dramatically during the past fifty years. But