The problem of ineffective listening is applicable to a wide variety of situations. As Ronald B. Adler and Neil Towne (1998) pointed out in their book, Looking Out, Looking In: Interpersonal Communications, listening constitutes an integral part of life for people in a wide variety of settings. The quality of the communication between lecturers and students, employers and employees, clients and service providers, or among family members and friends is highly dependent on the listening skills of the parties involved.
In spite of the importance of effective listening, most people demonstrate their inability to listen effectively, thus undermining effective communication. Adler and Towne (1998), along with Johnson (1996) highlighted the following characteristics of ine