Discusses the first impeachment trial of an American President. Issue of accountability. Presidential aggression and Congress. Political issues that led to Johnson's trial. Actions of the Republican majority. Conflict between the President and Edwin Stanton. Details of the impeachment trial of 1868. Public support for Johnson. His aquittal by one vote.
THE IMPEACHMENT OF ANDREW JOHNSON The recent attempts to impeach President Clinton re-focused historians and politicians on the first... more
THE IMPEACHMENT OF ANDREW JOHNSON The recent attempts to impeach President Clinton re-focused historians and politicians on the first impeachment trial of a U.S. President, Andrew Johnson, in 1868. The widely held view that the impeachment was a political abuse of constitutional power and an attempt to make the president subservient to Congress is greatly exaggerated. It was reluctantly undertaken by representatives who felt compelled to defend their institution against presidential aggression (Stathis, 29). The key is “accountability”. “Among American presidents, Andrew Johnson experienced one of the major tests of accountability. His political future as well as the fate of several members
Discusses the evolvement of the American President to the most powerful man in the world. Growth of the power of the executive branch & the federal government. New Constitutional Amendments. Refers to the Nixon presidency as the apex of the conflict between increasing national authority & growing presidential power. The Watergate Scandal & the restoration of the system of checks & balances by Congress. Relationahip between national authority & presidential power.
In the United States of America, as the nation has grown and developed, so the power and influence of the national government has broadened in scope... more
In the United States of America, as the nation has grown and developed, so the power and influence of the national government has broadened in scope and magnitude. Simultaneously, the executive branch of the American government has evolved in dramatic fashion; the American President is recognized today as the most powerful man in the world. These two processes -- the increasing of national authority and the growth of presidential power -- have at times complemented one another and at times contradicted one another. Ultimately, these are trends that are precariously linked, and forever intertwined. In the interest of protecting the individual citizen, the American system initially provided for basic sovereignty to
Examines FDR's informal "black cabinet," the people who served in it, and its importance to national culture. New Deal reforms & black support. Black leaders who advised FDR. The President's motive in using black advisers: to use their ideas to remedy racism & to rely on their opinion on a wide number of other issues. Diversity of "black cabinet." Contribution of educator Mary McLeon Bethune & others. Gains made by the NAACP, National Urban League & National Council of Negro Women as a legacy of the "black cabinet."
With the entrance of each new administration we now hear about the importance of making the president’s cabinet “look like America”. That... more
With the entrance of each new administration we now hear about the importance of making the president’s cabinet “look like America”. That resemblance is never actually achieved, of course, if only because each American has a different idea of what it is that America really looks like. But amid the complex politics of inclusion – at least when a Democrat is in the White House it is easy to overlook how far it is that we have actually come just over the course of the 20th century in terms of acknowledging that the differing experiences of different racial groups are all valid and that they must be included in an administration if the country is to be well run. Many people deserve credit for bringing African-American voices into the mainstream of the national political process. But one of the people who deserves a fair measure of credit is often forgo
Discusses his pluralist views of American democracy. His agenda as an attempt to create unity, reform the political system and campaign against special interests. Failure of his National Healthcare Policy. Participation of Congress in the Clinton agenda. Political stratification and hyperpluralism. Challenges to Clinton's leadership, integrity and competence.
Clinton’s Pluralism On balance, The Agenda illustrates the pluralist views of American democracy in which an elected president attempts to... more
Clinton’s Pluralism On balance, The Agenda illustrates the pluralist views of American democracy in which an elected president attempts to ensure that a wide range and variety of voices are heard in the formulation of policy, both domestic and foreign. Bob Woodward (1995), in describing Bill Clinton’s “agenda,” suggests that Clinton promised something for virtually everyone – teachers, the welfare dependent poor, minorities, the wealthy and the middle class, the business community, and those needing health insurance or concerned with a rising budget deficit. This “something for everyone” agenda, as viewed by Jonathan Rauch (1994), represented an attempt to achieved unity from disunity, to reform the political system to return control of a “reinvented” government to the “people,’ and a campaign against
Differing views of historians of President Jackson. How Jackson handled crises in 19th Century American such as the Bank Crisis, expansion of suffrage, and the country's transformation from an agrarian to an industrial nation. Jackson as a reactive folk hero. Champion of the common man. Struggle of Capitalists for control.
Jacksonian Democracy Summary & Impact The era in American history that witnessed Jacksonian Democracy is viewed in strikingly different ways... more
Jacksonian Democracy Summary & Impact The era in American history that witnessed Jacksonian Democracy is viewed in strikingly different ways by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Bray Hammond, and Edward Pessen. In the 19th century America was transforming from an agrarian to an industrial nations. During the 1830s, the Bank Crisis pitted Whigs against Jacksonian democrats for control of the country’s monetary system. The transforming young nation was beset by many changes and challenges. It is the nature of handling such crises as the expansion of suffrage, the banking system, and growing industry that these three authors present us with their differing views of Jacksonian Democracy. Arthur Schlesinger’s portrait of Jackson and his motives is a glowing and noble
Why he is the "father of his country." Discusses whether Washington still deserves this honor. Biographical data. Washington's crucial role as a general in the Revolutionary War. His commitment to republican values. His ideals. His political disinterest. Role in the Constitutional Convention. Election as first President of the U.S.
George Washington deserves to be called "the father of his country" for a number of reasons. He has been traditionally given this title and the... more
George Washington deserves to be called "the father of his country" for a number of reasons. He has been traditionally given this title and the tradition stretches back to his own lifetime. This indicates that he was important to people at the time in some unique fashion. It also indicates that the people must have had a specific desire to create such a role and that Washington filled it to their satisfaction. The question that remains, however, is whether he still deserves such an honor, now that centuries have passed. In order to determine this it is necessary to look at what he did that set him apart and made him uniquely qualified for such a role. Since his career was crucial to the country's birth in ways that no other man filled it can be said that he should be called "the father of his country." Washington, of course, was very similar to many of the other
Life & political career of 8th U.S. President. His policies on slavery & establishing an independent treasury.
Martin Van Buren Martin Van Buren, the eighth president of the United States, was born on December 5th, 1782, in Kinderhook, New York. His... more
Martin Van Buren Martin Van Buren, the eighth president of the United States, was born on December 5th, 1782, in Kinderhook, New York. His parents were Abraham Van Buren, a farmer and tavern keeper, and Maria Hoes Van Alen, both of Dutch descent. Van Buren attended the village school and then the Kinderhook Academy before he began to read law with Francis Silvester, a local attorney, in 1796, when he was only 14. Consequently, he was admitted to the state bar when he was only 21 (Encyclopedia Americana) and opened his own practice in Kinderhook in 1803. He married his cousin Hannah Hoes in 1807 and they had four children together. Van Buren's successful law practice and involvement in local politics eventually provided a strong base for his launch into national politics. Van Buren's success as
Compares & contrasts approaches of Presidents Abraham Lincoln & Andrew Johnson to post-Civil War reconstruction. Lincoln's views & plans. Johnson's origins, views & style. Evaluation of the 2 Presidents' skills & policies.
LINCOLN, JOHNSON AND RECONSTRUCTION This research paper compares and contrasts the approaches of Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson... more
LINCOLN, JOHNSON AND RECONSTRUCTION This research paper compares and contrasts the approaches of Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson to Reconstruction in the defeated Southern states after the Civil War. Reconstruction was an enormously complex task because of the intense passions aroused by the war, the suffering and physical damage caused in the South during it and the many difficulties inherent in attempting to restore the Union while at the same time accomplishing the war aims of the North, which included giving real legal, political and economic substance to emancipation of the former black slaves. Lincoln's views on slavery and its abolition as well as on the status of blacks in American society matured considerably before and especially during the war. At the time of his death,
Discusses effects & benefits of public debate on campaigns & as a central factor in elections. Examples.
Presidential and Vice-Presidential Debates For most of the 18th century in the United States, debates did not play a role in political elections... more
Presidential and Vice-Presidential Debates For most of the 18th century in the United States, debates did not play a role in political elections because the public and newspapers frowned upon any campaigning or direct appeal for votes (CNN.com, 1996). In those days, candidates relied on newspapers, pamphlets and an occasional public meeting to explain their positions to the public, primarily because the public expected candidates to reserve their energies for the task of government (CNN.com, 1996). Today, on the other hand, presidential and vice-presidential candidates essentially conduct a public job interview for as long as one year before the election. And the public debate has become a central and perhaps even deciding factor in some presidential elections. Presidential debates are a modern television age creation (CNN.com, 1996
Analysis of changing role of President as defined in Constitution to growing increase in executive powers. Franklin D. Roosevelt's transformation of Presidency.
The President of the United States is often described as “the most powerful man on earth” or “the leader of the free world,” yet his office is... more
The President of the United States is often described as “the most powerful man on earth” or “the leader of the free world,” yet his office is an 18th century invention still bound by rules and conventions that date back more than 100 years. The modern status of the U.S. President reflects the office’s transformation from a somewhat ceremonial post to a much more substantive role. This paper will examine the Presidency and explore whether the office has successfully evolved as the U.S. enters the 21st century. After gaining independence from Britain in 1783, the 13 former colonies organized their national government based on the Articles of Confederation, which proved to be an abject failure as the constitution. The Articles of Confederation failed in large part because they did not include any executive power (not surpr