Darwin's theory as a framework of Victorian society. Scientific Darwinism and Social Darwinism. Ways in which Darwinism challenged Victorian beliefs. Belief that individual morality should shape social relations to improve lives of the poor. English writers such as Tennyson, Carlyle and Browning who were influenced by Darwin's thought.
Darwinism and Victorian Beliefs Darwinism is, generally, defined by Carl Degler (pp. 10-11) as a framework through which Victorian society and... more
Darwinism and Victorian Beliefs Darwinism is, generally, defined by Carl Degler (pp. 10-11) as a framework through which Victorian society and its heirs have defined and understood the world. Implicit in Darwinism is the work of Charles Darwin, which included the seminally important On the Origin of the Species by Means of Natural Selection and On the Descent of Man. These texts, according to Marion Wynne-Davies (p. 447), expounded and backed with evidence the theory of the evolution of natural organisms; though not new, this theory was presented by Darwin as evidence-driven and demonstrably valid. As a theory, Darwinism gave rise to criticisms of religion and social practices, and was met by a backlash of equally vehement criticism because Darwin contended that species “naturally tend to produce variations and that some of these variatio
Discusses three stages of cellular evolution. First Common Ancestor (Universal Ancestor). Last Common Ancestor. Two basic forms of life: prokaryotes (single-celled); eukarotes (monocellular organisms) which have given rise to three kingdoms of multicellular organisms that exist. New types of cell divisions. DNA molecules.
There are basically two forms of life on earth: prokaryotes, which are cells without a nucleus, and eukarotes, which are cells which contain a nucleus... more
There are basically two forms of life on earth: prokaryotes, which are cells without a nucleus, and eukarotes, which are cells which contain a nucleus (Barbieri, 2001). Prokaryotes are found almost exclusively as single-celled organisms which can inhabit any ecological niche. They can exist with or without light, oxygen or organic molecules. They synthesize all their components from inorganic molecules, can rapidly adapt to environmental changes, and can exchange genes horizontally. Prokaryotes have a single circular DNA molecule, a single cell compartment and an exoskeleton. Eukaryotes are mostly dependent on oxygen, and exists as monocellular organisms such as protozoa and protista, and have given rise to the three kingdoms of multicellular organisms that exist: plants, fungi and animals (Barbieri, 2001). They have
Importance in the human evolution process. Controversy concerning Homo erectus and scientific points of view. Discusses theory that human beings evolved from primates or ape-like ancestors. Anthropoligists' s view of role of Homo erectus in evolution. Link between Homo sapiens and Homo habilis. The multiregional/continuity hypothesis.
Homo erectus: Importance, Evolution and Controversies Introduction Homo erectus is believed to have emerged about 1.8 million years ago... more
Homo erectus: Importance, Evolution and Controversies Introduction Homo erectus is believed to have emerged about 1.8 million years ago during the Lower Pleistocene Epoch of the Quarternary Period of the Cenozoic Era (Adelphi, p. 4-4). This brief report will first examine the importance of Homo erectus in the context of human evolution. Next, the report will consider the evolution of Homo erectus. Finally, the report will discuss a controversy concerning Homo erectus and explain the various points of view presented by scientists on this issue; it will conclude with a discussion of this writer’s position on the issue, which centers on the theory that human being developed or evolved from primates or ape-like ancestors. The Importance of Homo erectus in Human Evolution
The influences of nature and nurture have been at the heart of much controversy for many years. In recent years, it has focused on examining the... more
The influences of nature and nurture have been at the heart of much controversy for many years. In recent years, it has focused on examining the effects of genetic inheritance and those of the environment in which individuals are raised and live. In Darwin=s time, a similar argument raged, but with different views of what constitutes Anature@ and what constitutes Anurture.@ This paper will examine these issues. SECTION ONE Nature usually refers to what is innate in the individual, i.e. the genetic inheritance from the parents. In Darwin=s time it had a slightly different meaning. Nature had a much broader meaning then. Nature, at that time, covered a broad spectrum of factors. It embraced all of the natural world - land, sea, air, flora
Discusses Darwin's theory of cause & change & religious view of doctrine of creation. Finds Darwin's theory more plausible.
When Darwin published his book, Origin of Species, he sparked off a huge debate between the authority of science and that of religion. The debate... more
When Darwin published his book, Origin of Species, he sparked off a huge debate between the authority of science and that of religion. The debate continues even today. This paper will look at Darwin=s theory of cause and change, and the corresponding religious viewpoint. According to the philosophy of natural theology widely accepted in England in Darwin=s time, God had designed, and looked after, every species and its numerous adaptations (Mayr, 1991, p. 14). Darwin could not accept this explanation of the enormous diversity and adaption he observed. His own observations were also in conflict with the belief of the theologians in a perfect world. He questioned why all the species from former periods were extinct if they were perfect. To Darwin, creation as described in the bible was contradicted by al
Examines mixed reaction in U.S. over Darwin's theories of evolution & natural selection. Religious controversies; Scopes trial. Teaching Social Darwinisn in schools. Current historiography.
DARWINISM IN AMERICA This research paper discusses the reception, dissemination and teaching of the views of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in the... more
DARWINISM IN AMERICA This research paper discusses the reception, dissemination and teaching of the views of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in the United States since the publication of his Origin of the Species in 1859 and his The Descent of Man in 1871. Darwinism, namely, Darwin's scientific discoveries and opinions concerning the evolution of living or organic species, including humans, and the chief natural mechanism which he said governed that evolution, natural selection, challenged traditionally held Western scientific, philosophical and theological worldviews of the origin of life and the nature of man. As such, it received a mixed reaction in the United States initially and subsequently. Modern historiography suggests that the American reception accorded to Darwinism during the late
Causes & effects of evolutionary abundance in certain geographical areas in certain eras. Specialization, adaptation, variations, theories.
Evolution is a process of change and development as organisms adapt to their environment and to changing circumstance through time. A variety of... more
Evolution is a process of change and development as organisms adapt to their environment and to changing circumstance through time. A variety of mechanisms have been identified as being involved in the process of evolution. This process does not take place in a steady and even manner, and eras of massive change have been identified in the fossil record during which a process called radiation has taken place, producing many new species and so many changes in a given population. Such a sudden and massive expansion of species has been identified in different parts of the world, such as the rapid growth in diversity of cichild fish in Lake Victoria in eastern Africa, where more than 500 species have evolved over the last 12,000 years. Scientists have sought to discover why such radiations occur. Darwin explained the process of specialization and related
Activities, goals, biases, techniques of Christian institute opposing evolution, focusing on ICR's involvement in court cases & legislative efforts.
Activities and Goals of the Institute for Creation Research
Introduction One of the leading creationist organizations is the... more
Activities and Goals of the Institute for Creation Research
Introduction One of the leading creationist organizations is the Institute for Creation Research (ICR). Through the Creation Life Publishing Company, the ICR is the leading publisher of creation science material. Henry M. Morris is the Director of the ICR and Duane Gish is Associate Director (Nelkin, 1977, 66). Duane Gish (1978) in his public school edition textbook on creation science and evolution, defines creation as "the bringing into being by a supernatural Creator of the basic kinds of plants and animals by the process of sudden, or fiat, creation" (p. 40). The Institute for Creation Research (ICR), is a research division of Christian Heritage College founded in 197
Examines conflicting beliefs & theories & debate over proper role of each in educational system.
School systems are struggling with the dilemma of whether or not to teach creationism as an alternative view to evolution theory. If, as many... more
School systems are struggling with the dilemma of whether or not to teach creationism as an alternative view to evolution theory. If, as many scientific creationists believe, God's message is important in defining the content, aims, and conditions of educational practice, then creationism does belong in the classroom. However, those who propose that creationism is not science, and that "creation science" is a misnomer, are opposed to the intervention of religion into the public educational program; after all, public educational programs should be separate from concerns of the church. Despite separation of church and state, religious ideologies are hardly ever without consequences for the practice of education. Fundamentalist Christians who support a creationist theory will differ from liberal Christians who have no problem
Competing theories on evolution, meaning of anthropological discoveries, regional origins, cognitive aspects.
The purpose of this research is to examine human origins. The plan of the research will be to set forth the context in which the development of the... more
The purpose of this research is to examine human origins. The plan of the research will be to set forth the context in which the development of the species Homo sapiens can be elaborated and then to discuss theoretical and experimental work regarding such phenomena as "Lucy" and other extinct precursors of the family Hominidae, as well as theories that propose the onset of human evolution from 112,000 to 124,000 years ago. The popular culture is full of controversy regarding divisions between modern man (as denoted in the professional literature) and extinct precursor species of it. Notwithstanding the sociocultural controversy surrounding Darwin's theory of evolution, scientific investigation of the origins of human beings has evolution at its core. In the first quarter of the twentieth century, the generally