Research study on high prison recidivism rate. Major problem of recidivism in the criminal corrections system. Use of schock incarcertation or the prison boot camp concept as an approach to solving the problem. Goal and objectives of shock incarcertation and other alternative approaches. Cites results based on studies.
RECIDIVISM: A REVIEW AND AN ANALYSIS I. Introduction The essence of the major problem confronting criminal corrections in the United States... more
RECIDIVISM: A REVIEW AND AN ANALYSIS I. Introduction The essence of the major problem confronting criminal corrections in the United States is the unacceptably high recidivism rate among the offenders processed through the system. The results of the application of many different approaches to the problem fail to provide a definitive answer to the recidivism problem. One approach that has become widely used in the United States is shock incarceration, or the prison boot camp concept (Bentayou, 1995). Early research on the use of shock incarceration gave the programs glowing reviews. In all too many instances, however, the studies assessed limited data and tended to develop the findings that advocates of the concept wanted (Marcus-Mendoza, Klein-Saffran,
Discusses pros and cons of privitization of prison facilities. Evaluates issues and trends such as cost efficiency, rights of the individual, government monitoring but not operating prisons. Cites supporters of privitization arguments including reduction of cost of incarceration to governments, improved quality of services, better accountability, less bureaucracy. Arguments cited against privitization include potential for abuse of prisoner's rights by private sector, for-profit businesses and that privately run prisons are not as cost effective as claimed. Discusses privitization in several states.
Evaluation of Prison Privatization Privatization is increasingly at the forefront of every discussion in American life that deals with the cost... more
Evaluation of Prison Privatization Privatization is increasingly at the forefront of every discussion in American life that deals with the cost efficiency of government. At the state, county, and even local levels, the privatization of prison facilities has become a major area for outsourcing opportunity. The privatization of prisons is touted by its supporters as reducing the cost of incarceration to governments. It is also criticized by its opponents as potentially reducing government control over prison system inmates and processes while potentially ushering in an opportunity for the abuse of prisoners’ rights at the hands of private sector, for-profit business entities (Metzgar, 1999). It is the purpose of this report to evaluate issues relevant to and trends in prison privatization, highlighting the pros and
Examines the issue in the U.S. Trends in incarceration and institutional overcrowding. Increase in prison population. Emergence of overcrowding as a major public issue. Increase in violence crimes in the U.S. Development of new sentencing guidelines & mandates prison time. Costs associated with operating prisons. Approaches to reduction of criminal activity.
PRISON OVERCROWDING Introduction This research examines the issue and phenomenon of prison overcrowding in the United States. The... more
PRISON OVERCROWDING Introduction This research examines the issue and phenomenon of prison overcrowding in the United States. The examination reviews trends in incarceration, trends in institutional overcrowding, issues associated with prison overcrowding, and potential solutions to the problem of prison overcrowding. Trends in Incarceration and Institutional Overcrowding More than 6.5 million persons (3.1 percent of the adult population of the United States) were under correctional supervision in the United States at mid-year 2001 — the most recent available data. Of this total number, 1,962,220 were incarcerated (1,330,980 in prison and 631,240 in jail), 732,351 were on parole, and 3,932,751 were on probation (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 200
Discusses their contribution to the criminal justice system. Problems of overcrowding and escalating building costs that led to growth of the private prison industry. Advantages and disadvantages. Increase in jobs for local communities. Cost efficiency. Concerns regarding their performance, inexperienced staff. Failure of most private firms to deliver cost-efficient services.
One of the most pressing problems currently facing the correctional system in American society is overcrowding. In 2000, the number of imprisoned... more
One of the most pressing problems currently facing the correctional system in American society is overcrowding. In 2000, the number of imprisoned American adults reached 1.86 million, making U.S. the top country in the world with the highest number of incarcerated individuals. Many prisons are stretched past their limits. For example, the Lancaster State Prison in California that is designed to house 2,200 prisoners holds over 4,000 in the minimum- and maximum-security sections. Overcrowding has triggered riots and violence among prisoners (Dungan, 2001, p. 2). Furthermore, the quantity and quality of services for prisoners have also declined with excessive numbers of prisoners (Green in Wilson, 1996, p. 2). More importantly, the stressful conditions of squeezing people into limited space have also resulted in cases of misconduct by correctional
U.S. as the country with the highest number of incarcerated individuals. Discusses problems facing U.S. correctional system. Prisons stretched past their limits, triggering riots and violence among prisoners and misconduct by correctional officers. Decline of services for prisoners. Causes of overcrowding. Discusses options and programs to reduce overcrowding.
The topic of this paper is private prisons and its contribution to the American criminal justice system. In order to cope with the problems of... more
The topic of this paper is private prisons and its contribution to the American criminal justice system. In order to cope with the problems of overcrowding in prisons and the escalating costs of building cells, public officials have transferred the responsibility of incarceration to private corporations. The growth of the private prison industry is based on the belief that corporations can improve cost efficiency of prisons by reducing expenses by 15 to 20 percent. According to Susan Hart of Corrections Corporation of America (CCA)—the largest prison company in the country, private firms are not as hampered by rules and procedures in obtaining supplies and construction as public organizations. In addition, private prisons also save on labor costs with the provision of lower wages and the absence of labor unions. The use of high
Discusses growing private prison industry & its role in U.S. economy & in poor small towns. Social implications. Special interests. Prison construction. Issue of "legal exploitation" of prisoners.
The United States has the highest per capita incarceration rate in history and the prison-industrial complex has become a key element of the U.S.... more
The United States has the highest per capita incarceration rate in history and the prison-industrial complex has become a key element of the U.S. economy. Like the military industrial complex, a term coined in President Dwight D. Eisenhower's farewell speech in 1960, the prison-industrial complex is a mixture of government interests and private business. Profit, of course, is a major motive with social control another. The social implications of the prison-industrial complex are profound, and indicate the direction the United States is taking after the Cold War to solve its social problems. The result, however, is not the solving of social problems with better health care, education and services for people, but the growth of a new big business, the prison industry.
Discusses California's Corcoran State Prison. Guards' use of deadly force. 1998 court case involving shooting of inmate by guard. Denial of prisoners' civil rights.
Corcoran State Prison, part of the California prison system, has become infamous as a place where prisoners are abused, where guards used prisoners to... more
Corcoran State Prison, part of the California prison system, has become infamous as a place where prisoners are abused, where guards used prisoners to stage fights and then bet on the outcome, where complaints by prisoners led to punishment for the prisoners but not for the guards who were committing offenses, and where finally a court delivered a major verdict against the California state prison system. In its first decade of operation, Corcoran State Prison, touted as a state-of-the-art facility, proved to be a very dangerous place for prisoners to be placed. In that first ten years, Corcoran guards shot and killed seven inmates, and only nine months after opening, guards shot and wounded three inmates in eight weeks. These shootings were ruled justified on the claim that the intent was to protect an inmate or guard. Guards
Extensive survey of literature on imprisoned substance abusers. Problems, treatments, need for comprehensive treatment, model programs & obstacles. Recommendations. Abstract.
Treatment of Drug-Addicted Offenders in Prison Abstract There are an increasing number of individuals serving time in jails and prisons... more
Treatment of Drug-Addicted Offenders in Prison Abstract There are an increasing number of individuals serving time in jails and prisons for drug-related crimes. However, the majority of these individuals have never received treatment for any substance abuse problems outside of the prison system, and the majority of them are still not being served while in prison. The federal government has authorized a new push for treatment of substance abusers within the prison system. Nevertheless, there are many obstacles to effective treatment, including inadequate guidelines, standards, referral and screening procedures, and lack of information about effective programs. There are also programs that have met with success, most of
Discusses variety of programs to help ex-offenders & prevent prison return, especially among young people. Academic, vocational, drug, religious, social & life skills programs.
One of the major problems in knowing how to deal with criminals is the high recidivism rate. According to current figures, 62 percent of state... more
One of the major problems in knowing how to deal with criminals is the high recidivism rate. According to current figures, 62 percent of state prisoners will be re-arrested for a crime within three years of their release, and of these, 41 percent will return to prison (Pierce, 2000). Recidivism rates are highest in the first year after release, and are highest among young offenders: three out of four inmates under the age of 17 are re-arrested, and half will go back to prison (Sudo, 1989). Obviously there is something wrong with the way the justice system is punishing criminals for their crimes: it does not reform them, or deter them from committing further crimes once they are released from prison. Getting tough on criminals with longer sentences does not seem to be working. The resultant overcrowding means more money is ne
Discusses the 1971 riot in terms of prison policies & reforms instituted after riot.
The Attica prison riot took place in September, 1971 at the Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, New York and lasted four days. It ended when... more
The Attica prison riot took place in September, 1971 at the Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, New York and lasted four days. It ended when 1,500 State Police and National Guardsmen stormed the complex, leaving 42 people dead, including 10 hostages ("Attica Prison Riot"). At the end of the riot, there were conflicting calls for tougher prisons on the one hand, and for prison reform to correct the abuses that had contributed to the riot on the other. In the immediate aftermath of the riot, a number of reforms were instituted. However, in the years since, politicians and administrators have responded to calls to be tougher on crime by incarcerating many more people, thus overcrowding many facilities; reducing any service that might be seen as "coddling" prisoners; reducing or eliminating prison education programs; and generally creating a