Examines the 2000 California ballot measure. Presents argument for and against the "get-tough" initiative which passed. Changes in the juvenile justice system resulting from Prop 21. Legal definition of juvenile. Philosophy of juvenile courts. Issues of public safety, youth gangs, growing violence of juvenile crimes, treatment of juveniles. Contends the inititative is flawed.
Juvenile crime has become one of America’s most prominent issues, even as the overall crime rate has declined to the lowest point in decades.... more
Juvenile crime has become one of America’s most prominent issues, even as the overall crime rate has declined to the lowest point in decades. Several celebrated cases have helped create an image of teenagers run amok and younger and younger kids committing major felonies. Once apprehended, these children enter a juvenile justice system that many claim utilizes an outdated approach. In some cases, murderers have gone free at age 25 simply because that is the incarceration limit for the juvenile justice system. In response, an advocacy group placed a get-tough measure (called Proposition 21) on the California ballot. This initiative, which passed overwhelmingly (62 percent to 38 percent), calls for dramatic changes in the juvenile justice system. This paper will examine Proposition 21, highlighting the argum
Discusses the pros and cons of a separate juvenile system. Arguments and opinions on whether age should determine an individual's guilt and criminality. Contends that children who break the law should be treated differently from adults. The roots of juvenile justice as a concept in America. Public attitudes. Age and criminal intent.
This paper is a discussion of the pros and cons of having a separate system of justice to deal with juvenile crime. Since the first courts were... more
This paper is a discussion of the pros and cons of having a separate system of justice to deal with juvenile crime. Since the first courts were established to provide for different ways of dealing with youthful offenders, American society has gone through alternating waves in its opinions about whether age should determine an individual=s culpability and what the primary purpose of juvenile justice should be. Research has tried to find out whether more severe penalties or the assignment of certain crimes to adult courts, despite the age of the perpetrator, have any effects on the frequency or the rate of recidivism of especially violent crimes, with mixed results. The system as it exists treats younger offenders inconsistently, often depriving them of rights which are routinely part of the adult system. Most experts agree that juvenile justice in Ameri
Gangs as a social subculture. Origins of youth-gang membership. Causes. Sociology of gangs and gang participation. Linkage of youth to violent antisocial or criminal behavior. Gang dynamics. Personal support offered by gang members. Psychosocial and sociocultural theories of Latino gang membership. Cites studies on the subject.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate reports of studies regarding the origins of youth-gang membership. The research will set forth a general... more
The purpose of this research is to evaluate reports of studies regarding the origins of youth-gang membership. The research will set forth a general statement of the sociology of gangs as a social subculture and then discuss five accounts of research into the phenomenon of gang participation. Referring to study design and methods researchers used to address and understand the variety of issues that present themselves where youth gangs are concerned, the research will also suggest a way of studying gang membership, including its causes and the content of gang dynamics. The fact that youth gangs are linked to violent and other antisocial or criminal behavior is a commonplace of modern experience. Examples of school violence in Littleton, Colorado, and Jonesboro, Arkansas, in recent years show that gang membe
Discusses the role of gender. Problem of juvenile crime in general. Theories and research on the topic. Increase of anti-social behavior on the part of youth and youth sub-groups. Causal factors such as the cultural structure of American society. Loss of moral authority of family and community. Gender differences in aggressive behaviors.
THEORETICAL REVIEW OF GENDER AS A CORRELATED OF JUVENILE CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Introduction This research develops a theoretical review of... more
THEORETICAL REVIEW OF GENDER AS A CORRELATED OF JUVENILE CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Introduction This research develops a theoretical review of gender as a correlated of juvenile criminal behavior. The review establishes to problem of juvenile criminal behavior, examines theories and research involving juvenile criminal behavior and the role of gender, and suggests an alternative theoretical model for addressing the role of gender in juvenile criminal behavior. The Problem of Juvenile Criminal Behavior Criminal anti-social behavior on the part of youth is shockingly high. Further, the frequency of such behavior is increasing among some sub-groups, of which one consists of juven
Research design & literature review on why young men join gangs. Cites nature & changing image of gangs. Historical definitions of gangs; their characteristics; family factors. Focus on current delinquent gang activities that are criminal & threaten the greater society. Discusses different theories. Includes Methodology, Research Design, sample & data analyses to be used, Survey instruments. 1 Table.
INTRODUCTION Chapter One Statement of the Problem History of Gangs The term "gang" originally had no negative connotations. In... more
INTRODUCTION Chapter One Statement of the Problem History of Gangs The term "gang" originally had no negative connotations. In Old English, the term simply referred to a number of people who went around together as a group (Osman, 1999). Today, a gang is commonly defined in four ways: 1. An organized group with a leader. 2. A unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict. 3. A group whose members show unity through their language and clothing. 4. A group whose activities are criminal and threatening to
Discuses research studies on gangs, broken homes, immature behavior, situational behavior, career criminality.
Criminology: Theories of Juvenile Delinquency
I. Introduction Criminology, which encompasses all study of criminal behavior, has long... more
Criminology: Theories of Juvenile Delinquency
I. Introduction Criminology, which encompasses all study of criminal behavior, has long been concerned with the roots of juvenile delinquency. In many cases, juveniles with a history of delinquent behavior graduate into adult career criminals, and many researchers and sociologists believe that crime in the United States can be reduced by addressing the causes of juvenile delinquency. Unfortunately, there is no single universally accepted theory of juvenile delinquency. Rather, juvenile delinquency appears to occur at the convergence of numerous causative factors. Research has indicated that today street gangs exist in 94 percent of a
Study rationale, purpose, research methods to be used. Extensive literature review examines confliciting theories, risk factors & treatments. Abstract. Table of Contents.
Abstract The purpose of this research paper will be to investigate the conflicting theories on causes and treatment of violent juvenile crime in... more
Abstract The purpose of this research paper will be to investigate the conflicting theories on causes and treatment of violent juvenile crime in the United States. A review of the literature on the proposed subject will be performed and findings will be critically analyzed to provide an integration of information. The literature review to be analyzed will include the following subjects relevant to the topic: an introduction to juvenile crime, with trends and prevalence, state and federal activities, and criminal justice; conflicting theories, with the POM theory, social control theory, social bonding theory, and containment theory; causes of juvenile crime, including risk
Discusses various theories, problems that cause delinquency, esp. among inner-city youth.
Explaining Delinquency The studies undertaken by Thornberry, Moore and Christenson (1985), Wells and Rankin (1991) and Fagan, Weis and Cheng... more
Explaining Delinquency The studies undertaken by Thornberry, Moore and Christenson (1985), Wells and Rankin (1991) and Fagan, Weis and Cheng (1990) attempted to examine the relationship between dropping out of school, broken homes and substance use and delinquency, respectively. Essentially, each study did determine that such a relationship exists, but each also determined that these relationships are considerably more complex than they may initially appear. Thornberry et al. (1985) attempted to determine the effect of dropping out of high school on an individual's subsequent criminal behavior. They noted that strain and control theories of delinquent behavior offered divergent assessments of the relationship between school and delinquency, particularly for lower-class youths. Stra
Proposal based on a review of literature re: conflicting theories of causes & treatments.
CONFLICTING THEORIES ON CAUSES & TREATMENT OF VIOLENT JUVENILE CRIME IN THE U.S. Introduction Statement of the Problem The... more
CONFLICTING THEORIES ON CAUSES & TREATMENT OF VIOLENT JUVENILE CRIME IN THE U.S. Introduction Statement of the Problem The literature has provided an extensive overview regarding youth and violent crime. A historic look at adolescent crime shows that murders committed by teens between the ages 14 and 17, increased 165% between 1985 and 1995. This number was feared to double by the year 2010. Drugs were blamed as were gangs and guns. Juvenile homicides are usually committed with handguns (90%). Childhood abuse was also thought to be a factor. Incarceration is viewed by some to be the answer, however effectiveness and a cost benefit ratio of this solution has not yet been determined (Crispell, 1997, p. 42).
Discusses mediation as a cost-effective, valuable tool in juvenile justice system. Its purpose, how it works, problems.
MEDIATION IN JUVENILE COURT This research paper discusses the use of mediation in dependency and other proceedings in juvenile courts and... more
MEDIATION IN JUVENILE COURT This research paper discusses the use of mediation in dependency and other proceedings in juvenile courts and assesses its effectiveness. Mediation is used in dependency proceedings and in other cases involving status offenses, misdemeanors and occasionally more serious first time offenses, often in conjunction with victim-offender reconciliation efforts. In general, mediation has proved to be a cost-effective method of relieving juvenile court congestion and dealing with relatively minor juvenile offenses in a manner which optimizes familial, community, and victim involvement and at the same time serving the best interests of the juvenile offenders involved. Mediation is not, however, very effective in addressing the problem of hard core violent juvenile crime and its effectiveness is