Theories of language & speech & impact on development of autistic, hyperactive & attention-affected children.
Language, as a symbolic tool and coping strategy, is an important factor of any child's overall development, and its acquisition by children has been... more
Language, as a symbolic tool and coping strategy, is an important factor of any child's overall development, and its acquisition by children has been studied by many researchers. Scholars share the conviction that key aspects of personality and ability, including linguistic and communication ability, are formulated in the earliest stages of life. But they are divided on the role of human intuition on one hand and heredity or environment have in childhood development of knowledge, aptitude, and skill. Equally, they are divided on how skills emerge and develop. A number of different theories have been advanced that are meant to explain language acquisition. To what extent early speech expresses intelligent thought was one of Piaget's concerns (Piaget, 1965), and that issue has become almost a commonplace constant of language theory. Bohannon and W
Examines uses & sociocultural purposes of euphemisms for urination, body parts, racial/ethnic groups, sex, physical & mental disabilities.
Most people are taught to tell the truth when they are growing up with aphorisms like "Speak the truth and shame the devil" and fables like the little... more
Most people are taught to tell the truth when they are growing up with aphorisms like "Speak the truth and shame the devil" and fables like the little boy who cried wolf. We are given continual reminders of the unpleasant things that lie in store for those people who diverge from this straight-and-narrow path of truth. And yet at the same time, we are given several sets of contradictory instructions in our formative years, including the prescription that we should not hurt other people's feelings if that be possible and that we should not swear or use dirty words. It is often in an attempt to reconcile these differing sets of instructions that people employ euphemisms. The etymology of the word euphemism is a relatively straightforward one, coming to the modern English speaker from
The speeches of Abraham Lincoln give a good picture of that great leader in his own words and open a window onto another historical era. Some of... more
The speeches of Abraham Lincoln give a good picture of that great leader in his own words and open a window onto another historical era. Some of these speeches are well-known, while others are less often read. Abraham Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" is one of the most famous speeches in American history, learned by heart by many schoolchildren, with phrases that have rung down through the ages, though the precise circumstances of the speech may not be so well known. The speech is not merely of historical importance but also serves as a prime example of rhetorical structure in spite of the fact that it was probably "dashed off" by its author almost as an afterthought because of the need to make a speech at a certain place for a specific occasion. Of course, the Civil War divided the country literally, with North against South, brother against brother.
Alarm calls are widespread in nature, and researchers are exploring why such calls are given, as they may draw attention to the animal giving the... more
Alarm calls are widespread in nature, and researchers are exploring why such calls are given, as they may draw attention to the animal giving the signal, and thus put its life at risk. Other researchers are looking at what the different calls signify in order to learn how animals communicate, and ultimately use this knowledge to determine how human cognition has evolved. This paper will look at the alarm calls of some animal species, what they signify, how they have developed, and how they relate to the animal's habitat. Alarm calls of animals are part of a complex language system, with different calls being used to warn of different predators and triggering different survival actions, depending on the animal species, according to Milius (1998). For example, a vervet monkey can make three different kinds of alarm calls, and each
Examines differences in communication styles, content & method of interpretation between sexes.
This paper is an examination of the differences in communication styles, content, and method of interpretation that are the result of gender. As... more
This paper is an examination of the differences in communication styles, content, and method of interpretation that are the result of gender. As bestsellers such as John Gray's Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus point out, men and women frequently appear to be speaking entirely different languages, even when the vocabulary, syntax, and grammar they use are identical. This is partly the result of the inherent garbling that occurs within any communication process, but it is also because of essential differences between the two sexes. The contrasts in biology, anatomy, and genes provide the initial reason for gender miscommunication, while the influences of society account for the fundamentally contrasting ways in which men and women select the messages they send and transmit to others. Understanding these differences can offer fascinating
Reviews work on evidence of animals' emotions: playfulness, mourning, depression, more.
The book "When Elephants Weep" by Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson and Susan M. McCarthy examines the concept that animals have emotions. They examine in... more
The book "When Elephants Weep" by Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson and Susan M. McCarthy examines the concept that animals have emotions. They examine in depth the different types of emotions known to man and describe experiments and field observations that show that animals also express the same types of emotions. This area of study is somewhat controversial, and the authors point out that, while no one can deny such things as the boundless joy shown by a dog when it knows it is about to be taken for a walk, and the gentle purring of a cat when it is being stroked, many people, particularly scientists, are loathe to call these emotions. The authors propose that the attitude of scientists may have developed with the advent of laboratory studies on animals in the 1960s. Scientists needed to believe that animals were different
Describes & compares advantages & limitations, concerns, goals & examples of two approaches to study of language.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, linguists were concerned primarily with codifying languages as they were spoken and/or written--they limited... more
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, linguists were concerned primarily with codifying languages as they were spoken and/or written--they limited themselves to what we today call "descriptive" linguistics, or the study of words and sentences that have been produced by native speakers of a given language. Since the 1950s, however, beginning with MIT scholar Noam Chomsky, linguists have largely focussed their attention on trying to discover the range of words and sentences that could be produced by native speakers. This latter approach is referred to as "generative" linguistics; its goal is to account for words and sentences which do exist and, in addition, for all words and sentences which do not, but are grammatically possible. This paper will further explore and explain the differences between these two approaches to the study of language.
Analyzes vowel symbol's phonetic use, orthographics, variations, examples, history.
The phoneme /æ/ is also known as "ash." The lower-case symbol æ is the form used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to refer to "a not... more
The phoneme /æ/ is also known as "ash." The lower-case symbol æ is the form used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to refer to "a not quite open, front unrounded vowel, higher than Cardinal 4 and lower than Cardinal 3" (McArthur & Weiner, 1992, p. 84). An example of its phonetic use is the common American pronunciation of the word cat, /kæt/. The orthographic ligature <æ>, or upper case <Æ>, was employed in Old English orthography to indicate a sound that fell somewhere between a and e, containing elements of both, while being distinct from either of those vowels. The scholarly name ash was given to this grapheme because the Old English word for ash tree (also æsc, or aesc) was a mnemonic name used for the character. This name was then adopted by linguistics scholars to refer to the phoneme /æ/. Though subsequent orthographic uses of <æ> did
Defines & applies this communications theory (based on interaction expectations) to teaching English as a second language.
Effective communication requires a context supplied by circumstances, mutual understanding and expectation. These variables are actively studied by... more
Effective communication requires a context supplied by circumstances, mutual understanding and expectation. These variables are actively studied by discourse analysts, who not only have acknowledged the importance of context in communication, but also have studied it extensively and discovered that, in many ways, conversations--exchanges between speakers--are as constrained and predictable as other aspects of language, such as phonology and syntax. Discourse analysts have developed a theory called "script theory," which takes context and speakers' expectations into account. This research will define and discuss script theory and examine its potential as a tool in the teaching of English as a second language. Script theory involves the assumption that much of human conversation--human interaction in general--revolves around