Traces the history of Haiti and the Dominican Republic from the time of Columbus through the mid 19th century. Focuses on how the colonial history & division of the country might have influenced contemporary politics on the island.
INTRODUCTION The islands of the Caribbean have had been part of the history of the New World since the time of their discovery by Columbus,... more
INTRODUCTION The islands of the Caribbean have had been part of the history of the New World since the time of their discovery by Columbus, though most Americans know little of that history. Haiti and the Dominican Republic emerged from what was the first New World colony settled by Spain, the island then known as Hispaniola. The island served as the central base for the exploration and conquest of much of the Western Hemisphere. The island was first sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1492, and it played a role in Spanish history for as long as Spain has had important political and commercial interests in this Hemisphere. Haiti would become the dominant force by the nineteenth century, and the Dominican Republic would not emerge from under Haiti's shadow until 1844. The island continued to be vulnerable
Overview of Eastern Caribbean island nation's economy, politics, population, history, regional associations, agriculture, tourism, future.
INTRODUCTION The island of Grenada, in the Eastern Caribbean, is part of the West Indies, a chain of islands formed by the peaks of the... more
INTRODUCTION The island of Grenada, in the Eastern Caribbean, is part of the West Indies, a chain of islands formed by the peaks of the Caribbean Andes. The main island is 21 miles long and 12 miles wide at its widest point--about twice the size of Washington, D.C. The nation of Grenada also includes some inhabited islands from the Grenadines chain, the larger of which are Carriacou and Petit Martinique. Both Carriacou and Petit Martinique have colonial histories that parallel Grenada's. As the twenty-first century nears, Grenada struggles to stabilize its economy. Grenada is mainly rural; farming techniques are not much different from those employed 100 years ago. And when prices decline for one of its few exports, the overall earnings of Grenada plummet. Like many small island
Critical review of fictionalized account of three sisters killed in Dominican Republic in 1960 by dictator's secret police.
Julia Alvarez, in her novel In the Time of the Butterflies, presents a fictionalized account of the lives and murders of three sisters who were in... more
Julia Alvarez, in her novel In the Time of the Butterflies, presents a fictionalized account of the lives and murders of three sisters who were in fact tortured and killed in 1960 in the Dominican Republic by the secret police of dictator Trujillo for their opposition to his tyranny. A fourth sister survived and her fictional spirit contributes to the telling of this enraging, heartbreaking, and finally inspiring story of tragedy and courage. As Alvarez writes in the postscript to the novel, she and her own family were exiles from Trujillo's tyranny, leaving the country less than four months before the murder of the Mirabal sisters, known as Las Mariposas, or The Butterflies. In fact, the author's father was active in the underground resistance to Trujillo, along with the four sisters. Alvarez says that she
History & evolution of social, economic & political systems, poverty, class conflict, relations with Haiti; focuses on ethnic & gender issues & human rights.
ETHNICITY, GENDER AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC This research paper discusses ethnicity, gender and human rights in the Dominican... more
ETHNICITY, GENDER AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC This research paper discusses ethnicity, gender and human rights in the Dominican Republic. The ethnic origins of its peoples have played an important role in shaping its social, political and economic institutions. Racial tensions have uniquely bedeviled relations between the dominant mulatto majority and blacks, especially those of Haitian origin. Gender conflicts have not been especially significant because of the dominance of machismo culture, but women have a degree of economic power. Human rights have been largely ignored and are emerging as a significant issue as the Republic begins to modernize and to strive for greater political maturity and social justice during the post-Trujillo period. Ethnic and Racial Composition
Examines novel's depiction of characters' struggle for justice & freedom against poverty & oppression in Haiti, in multicultural context.
Frances Temple, in the novel Taste of Salt, explores the oppression of two characters involved in the fight for justice in Haiti. As much as the story... more
Frances Temple, in the novel Taste of Salt, explores the oppression of two characters involved in the fight for justice in Haiti. As much as the story is about the struggle of Djo and Jeremie, it is also about the power of stories to change people and situations for the better. The novel may be about Haiti specifically, but it is a multicultural work in the sense that its power as an account of courage and faith cuts across all cultures, nations and nationalities. This study will focus on that courage and faith of the two heroes of the book insofar as their story and their strength offer hope to people of all cultures in their personal and political fight for justice and freedom. Djo's story is told to Jeremie and her tape recorder at the behest of Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide, who is trying to oust
Origins & development in Cuba & Puerto Rico, deities, rituals, natural forces, sacrifices, ancestor worship, priesthood, magic spells, initiation, organization, healing.
SANTERIA: AN EXAMINATION OF A RELIGION AND ITS PRACTICES Introduction This research examines the Santeria religion and its practices.... more
SANTERIA: AN EXAMINATION OF A RELIGION AND ITS PRACTICES Introduction This research examines the Santeria religion and its practices. Throughout this examination, both similarities and differences between (1) Santeria as the religion is practiced in Cuba (where it developed) and (2) Santeria as the religion is practiced in Puerto Rico (one of the many other Latin American populations in which the religion became rooted) are identified and reviewed. The Development of Santeria in Cuba and Puerto Rico The origins of Santeria may be traced to the Yoruba people who are native to Nigeria (JAcobs, 1990, pp. 349-370). The Yoruba practiced a mythological, animist religion which made its
History of relations & conflicts among two nations & U.S. & discrimination against Haitians in Dominican Republic.
THE CONFLICT BETWEEN HAITIANS AND DOMINICANS WITHIN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Introduction This research examines the conflict between... more
THE CONFLICT BETWEEN HAITIANS AND DOMINICANS WITHIN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Introduction This research examines the conflict between Haitians and Dominicans within the Dominican Republic. The nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic jointly occupy the island of Hispanola in the Caribbean. Because Haiti is an even poorer (economically) country than is the Dominican Republic, the migration from Haiti to the Dominican Republic tends to be much heavier than the reverse migration from the Dominican Republic to Haiti. As a consequence of the migration, a substantial population of Haitians resides and works within the Dominican Republic. Economic migration of this sort is frequently associated with conflict b
Historical background, Amer. involvement, politics, military, economics, Duvalier dictatorship, Aristide-Cedras conflict, role of U.N., Carter-Clinton 1994 peace settlement.
After a long and difficult day of negotiations with Haiti's military rulers in September 1994, former President Jimmy Carter excused himself from... more
After a long and difficult day of negotiations with Haiti's military rulers in September 1994, former President Jimmy Carter excused himself from dinner with some Haitian business people, withdrew to his hotel suite, and began typing the first draft of what later became the American agreement for the dissolution of Haiti's military regime. Carter never cleared his proposal with President Clinton. For that matter, the White House did not even know it existed until the following morning, almost half a day after Carter offered the proposal to the Haitian military. By then, Lieutenant General Raoul Cedras had already accepted the proposal as a basis for agreement. The transition from military to civilian rule had begun under uncertain terms. The purpose of this research is to examine the events that led up to the Haitian crisis and the United States/Haitian
Evaluates justification for Amer. & British aggression. Just vs. unjust wars, legality, leadership, major issues, strategy, public views, opposition.
Michael Walzer delineates the conception of just and unjust wars and states that no war can be just on both sides, though a war can be unjust on both... more
Michael Walzer delineates the conception of just and unjust wars and states that no war can be just on both sides, though a war can be unjust on both sides. In general, war is unjust for the one at fault and just for the defender against aggression. Walzer indicates how the legalist paradigm of aggression has been used to differentiate between the two, between the just and the unjust war. This paradigm begins with the domestic analogy which holds that aggression is the international equivalent of armed robbery or murder. Walzer points out that international society is and is not like domestic relationships, but to the degree that it is like domestic relationships, the legalist paradigm may suffice to demonstrate who is at fault. International aggression is worse than domestic crime because the threat is so much greater and there is no policeman to act as protector. There are